Edward Arnold Chapman
Code-name Zigzag (Zig-Zag)
Edward Arnold Chapman
Code-name Zigzag (Zig-Zag)
Page initiated: 19 April 2021
Status: 10 May 2021
Chapter 2 (3-5'21)
Chapter 3 (10-5'21)
In the past I encountered their names before, but never believed that this incorporated an interesting story.
Here it all started with
Chapman, Edward, Arnold
Code-name Zig-Zag (Zigzag)
As being practised, let us follow the line and sequence of the genuine document
KV 2/455, page 2 + 3 (minute 5a)
Isle of Ely Constabulary.
For your information: the location of the village Isle of Ely
The Chief Constable
17th December 1942.
Subject: Enemy Agent arriving by parachute at Littleport near Ely.
I beg to report that yesterday, Wednesday the 16th December, 1942, I received a call from Sergeant Howard Howard just after 5 a.m. and in consequence I went straight to the Police Station after having given instructions for the motor patrol car to be sent to Littleport.
At about 7.15 a.m. green and Hill returned to the |police Station with a man in civilian clothes. he immediately held out his hand to me aid; "Good morning Sir". I asked him what his name was and he replied: "George Clarke will do now". I told him that I understood he had landed in this district from a plane and he said: "yes. I came over in a Focke-Wulf Reconnaissance Plane but I have had a rough passage, as when I tried to get out of the plane I got stuck in the hatch which was only a small one, as the machine was not made for parachute jumping, we had been doing about 350 miles an hour that he had left the plane and he said there were no others. He told me that he had left Le Bourget, Paris about 11.25 p.m. (CET?) and that the plane he had come over in was a special one which immunised from radio Location explaining that the noise of the engine would be a kilometre late. He made a special request to me that the package in the canvas wrapper should not be opened except by Intelligence Service, when he would have a very interesting story to tell.
I proceeded to search him and he took off all his clothes until he was naked. I found a small brown tablet in cellophane paper stitched in the turnup of his trousers. I asked him if he had any more like that and he said: "You had better have a look". I made a further search of his clothes but could find no more. I was handed among things in canvas bag inside which was an oilskin cover which contained a quantity of English Bank Notes; I counted these taking a note of the serial numbers of each one separately - there were Six £50 Notes, fifty £10 notes, thirty £5 notes, eighteen £1 notes and fourty-four 10/- notes, making a total of £990. I attach hereto, a list of these notes, together with a list of property which was found either on the person or on his possession and which he claimed as having been brought by him. I asked him if there was anything else which he had not got and he said the should be a map with a round ring on it to indicate the position at which he should have landed, and he believed he had lost this in a field.
He was later seen by Major Hughes and after that, with Major Hughes and Detective Sergt. Davies I took him to the Royal Patriotic School, Trinity Road Wandsworth. After having been interviewed there, I received an order signed on behalf of the Secretary of State, authorised the detention of the ? man (whose name was then believed to be one, H.N. Chapman, under Article 1A ?? of Arrival from Enemy Territory Order.
I served a copy of this order on Chapman and the original ? handed to Lieut. Corden (?) into whose custody I gave him. I received from this officer a receipt of his body (Chapman) and I also obtained a receipt from Col. Hinchley Cooke, for the property as per the attached list.
With regard to the Electric Cycle Lamp with a Red Glass, mention ? where the landing place took place, I questioned the man about it, but he strenuously denied all knowledge of it.
As will be seen from the report of Sergt. Vail, the map referred ? to was found by Mrs. Convine in a chair at her house to-day.
I am etc.
KV 2/455, page 4 (minute 67c)
Isle of Ely Constabulary.
17th December 1942
Subject: Unauthorised arrival from enemy territory, dropped from German aircraft at little port on 16th December, 1942.
I beg to report that at 5.55 a.m. on Wednesday, 16th December, 1942, a telephone message was received from Supt. F.G. Wells, ...?... Supt. F Flatman D.C.C. to the effect that a parachutist had been dropped from a German aircraft and had surrendered to the Police at Littleport.
Inspector Taylor, Chief Clerk, and myself were immediately notified by the D.C.D. who also gave specific instruction to Sup. Wells to what action to take i.e. to observe strict secrecy; to take possession of, and note in detail everything in the possession and connected with the prisoner; to strip him of all his clothes, and to take special care to preserve or recover any code which he might have. Major Hughes R.S.L.O. was at once notified. Arrangements were made for the prisoner to be taken to the Divisional headquarters at Ely.
At 7.30 a.m. the deputy Chief Constable, Inspector Taylor and myself (Sgt. Joseph S. Vail), left for Ely, and arrived there about 8.15 a.m. The prisoner had been stripped and searched, all property in his possession had been listed.
The D.C.C. at once interviewed the prisoner, and it was apparent that he was an Englishman. Accordingly he was asked by the D.C.C. if he had previously been in police hands, or had his fingerprints taken in Germany, and that he had dropped from a Focke-Wulf aircraft from a height of about 7 miles. When asked if he had used oxygen he replied "Yes", and and later said he dropped from a height of 3 miles. He was questioned as to the other personnel in the aircraft. he said that there were three Germans in the aircraft, who could not speak English. They had commenced the flight at Le Bourget, and he had had to fly over two hours kneeling down over a hatch. On reaching what they thought was the destination they released the hatch, but had got hung up as an opening was too small, and he had had a very terrifying experience. He later dropped, and it took from 12 to 15 minutes to descend. he pointed out to the D.C.C. on an Ordnance map the position that he should have dropped, and showed him Mundford, a village North of Thetford. →
When we compare Mundford and Ely in which vicinity he actually landed - it isn't a too much mistake, in my understanding
→ a village North of Thetford. he said he was going to make for Norwich. He also told the D.C.C. that he had passed through the district previously. As to his map, and could not find it. He was asked if he had any direction from the ground, he replied; "No, we had to fly so high owing to the tremendous amount of 'flak'". He stated that the aircraft he came over in was a new Focke-Wulf reconnaissance plane, which did not give off any sound which could be radio located. When asked about his trade or profession he said: "Well, put me down independent!" The D.C.C. told him he would very soon be handed over to the proper authorities as he had asked. The D.C.C. then instructed me to remain with the prisoner and make a note of anything he might say that might be useful, which could be checked up and verified later. This I (Sgt. Joseph S. Vail) did, and I mede the following notes:
He was born at Berwick on 16th November, 1914. (really?)
He had a father and a brother in this country, his mother being dead, he described himself as "Independent". He stated that England early in → (page 5)
KV 2/455, page 5
1939 for Jersey, going by air from a small airport near Croydon used by the Jersey Airways.
Previously he had lived in this country all his life. He went to Jersey for a holiday and was there for about two years, until the island was occupied by the Germans. He was subsequently arrested by Germany for political reasons, and taken to a special concentration camp "Fort Romanville", where he remained about four months. He volunteered to work in the interests of the German Government, and was finally allowed to leave the camp, and he joined the German Army (AOB, impossible!), being in the Marines (Kriegsmarine?), for about seven months. He stated that all German agents are officially in the German Army (nonsense!). The only active service he had had with the Army was in the occupation of Vichy France when he worked with the "Gestapo". (AOB, nonsense!) (AOB, the real Gestapo did not operate outside Germany, what manifested was the Sicherheitsdienst (S.D.)!) hesitated that they there traced a British agent, who got away, but left all his papers behind. He knew that he was to be landed in England for espionage about four months ago, and that considerable trouble was taken in the arrangements. On several occasions the journey had been arranged and then postponed, but that on one previous occasion they actually set out and he was "dropped", when he landed he found he was in France, near Nantes. He was later told that this was an accident, but he believed it to be a test as to his reliability, but he stated he made no mistake. He had training in Germany to make parachute jumps. He had special training at an Espionage School in Germany. He did not know until Tuesday the 15th instant, that he was being dropped over here on that night. (AOB, quite dilettante) There were no transport planes available, although he understood that they first tried to obtain one from Russia, and later from the Middle East, but there were none available. It was therefore decided to bring him in one of the new Focke-Wulf Reconnaissance machines. He had a slight rehearsal of getting in and out of the machine of the ground, but no training in the air. It was found that there was just room for him to get through the hatch with his equipment.
He stated he left Le Bourget at 11.25 p.m. and arrived in this country and made his jump about 2.35 a.m. on the 16th December. he said he had descended from a height of about three miles, which took him 12 minutes. He had no idea where he was, as he should have been dropped North of Thetford (A85) (A85return), but owing to an accident when he got hung up on making his exit from the plane there were some minutes delay before he eventually freed himself. He said it was his intention to give himself up immediately, but was not sure that he was actually in England until he arrived at the house where he made his telephone call to the Police. He stated he told the woman he was a British airman, no contact to make in this country, but he knew his arrival was being checked, although he did not know how. However, he knew thare was a wireless working in this area working in this area, but did not know exactly where. He stated that owing to very guarding a certain person in this country, he had reason to believe that this person may be working for Germany. He stated he would give the name of this person to the Secret Service.
During recent weeks he had been permitted to read all the British newspapers which arrived about six days late, and listen to the British news broadcasts.
He stated that when he left this country in 1939 he was in possession of a British Passport, but he did not know what had happened to it; he thought the German Authorities had it but did not know why it was not given to him to use on his present visit. He stated that the German's could not follow the code letters used on British Identity cards. He was not issued with a British ration book as he told them he would manage that himself. His identity document were prepared for him four months ago. He had lived in London and Scotland and had driven through the Eastern Counties. He had never been to Germany previously. he said that a male friend of his was being held hostage in Germany. He would give the name of this person to the → (page 6)
KV 2/455, page 6
British airman had an accident" I went downstairs and let him in. My husband was lighting the lamp/ I noticed as he entered his face had blood on it. he said: "I want to speak to the Police at once". I let him use the phone. I asked hoim where his plane was. he replied: "Across the fields". Later he said he came out of a plane by parachute. I said; "I though I heard a "Jerry". He replied: "yes, that would be a cover plane for ours". The man was very polie and we kept him until the arrival of the Police.
I am Sir,
Your obedient servant
Joseph S. Vail Sgt.
KV 2/455, page 8 (minute 67c)
Isle of Ely Constabulary.
Superintendent F.G. Wells Littleport Station
Police Office Ely Division.
Subject:- Parachutist at Apea Hall, Wisbech Road, Littleport, Map reference 75/008.090.
I beg to report that at 01.48 hrs, Wednesday, 16th December 1942, the "alert" warning was given at Littleport. Immediately following the siren planes could be heard overhead. The planes appeared to be at the normal height although one appeared to be lower than others and appeared to circle the western side of Littleport, I thought two or three times. At 02.18 hours, the "all clear" was given. During the "alert period no other planes were over Littleport, apart from those ready mentioned.
At 03.45 hrs I was informed by T/Sergt. Hutchings that he had received a telephone call from Apes Hall Farm. (Littleport 9). The call being made by a man who stated he just arrived from France. With T/Sergt. Hutchings I proceeded to Apeas Hall Farm which is approximately 2½ miles direct line N.N.W. (North-North-West) of Littleport, arriving at 04.30 hrs. This farm is owned by Hiams Ltd., Milton Road, Cambridge. Farm foreman residing at the farm being George Covine and his wife Martha Ellen Covine. (N.R.I.C. Tday 73-1 - 2. On our arrival we were met at the back door by Covine. He stated that the man in question (Chapman) was in his living room. On going to the living room door the door was opened by a man in civilian clothes who came out and met us with hands outstretched. He shook hands with us and appeared agitated, but pleased to see us. He spoke in perfect English. On going into the living room the man produced an automatic pistol fully loaded saying: "I expect the first thing you want is this. He unloaded the magazine, handed the pistol to me (Superintendent F.G. Wells) and placed the magazine which he had removed with a second magazine (loaded) he took from his pocket, on to the table. I asked where he came from. He replied: "France, I want to get in touch with the British Intelligence Service, it is a case for them. I'm afraid I can't tell you much". I pointed out to him that I did not wish to question him unduly (excessively), but I wished to to clear up fact as to his arrival. He replied: Ï came over in a Focke-Wulf Reconnaissance plane and dropped three miles by parachute". I asked him where his parachute was and other equipment. He then explained the exact spot where he had hidden the stuff, stating he had hidden it because of enemy agents. On a chair in the living room was an oblong (rhombus) shaped parcel wrapped and sewn (stitched) in sacking (stitched). He explained this was his radio transmitter chocolate and shirts. he further stated this must be touched only by the Intelligence people. I asked him if he had money on him. He replied: "Yes". removing his jacket and shirt there was a small package strapped to his back between his shoulders blades. removing this he handed it to me. On examination I found it to contain Bank of England notes of large denomination (value). he informed me there was £1000. Other property found on him was an Eire travel permit No. 55692 in the name of of Morgan O'Brien, issued in Dublin 5th December, 1939 occupation Electrical Engineer, address given as Newbridge, Co. Kildare, date of birth 16th November, 1914. This permit was quite new and clean. Also in his possession was an identity card in a blue case, No. PHC.1191, in name of Clarke George, dated 29.4.40, address 92 The Grove, Hammersmith, London.
This card was obviously a fake. It was brand new, and the letters and numbers PHC.1191 being contained in the first space provided for the letters only. In addition the name Clarke george and the address had been entered by the same person, the only writing which differed being the signature which was in a different coloured ink. I asked the man this was his correct name. → (page 9)
KV 2/455, page 9
He shook his head and smiled. I pointed out to him that the names on both documents differed. he replied: "They were given me just before I left". Also in his possession a small compass, a small wallet containing £1 and 10/- notes (Bank of England) and another wallet containing photos etc. which he stated came from a man killed at Dieppe (ca. 19 August 1942). I took all precautions that nothing was destroyed or discarded (waste) by the man. before leaving Littleport Police Station I had informed the man on duty that should the call be genuine I would ring him and give him a certain message which would mean to get in touch with Rly Police (Div. H.Q.) at once. I took this precaution as I was using the exchange line (regular telephone in contrast to a secure or scrambled telephone line). I put this message through to Littleport Police Station at 05.00 hrs. It was then conveyed to Ely by private line.
T/Sergt. Hutchings and Convine then left the house to search for the parachute and equipment. George Convine is a Special Constable attached to Littleport. I stayed with with the man at Covine's house. After a time he became rather talkative. He stated he had been in France two years having gone there from Jersey. He had mixed up with high German officers. The German army and air force was very strong, but England would win the war. The German people have a very poor opinion of the Italians and French. The only way to invade Europe, and the sure way, would be from Africa through Italy. He then attempted to question me as to the number of American troops in this country and what was and what the general opinion of the ||British was towards them. He later stated that he went to France before the war (previously he had stated ago 2 years ago). He also contradicted himself as to the number of people in the plane which flew him over. First he stated there was only one other, the pilot, later he stated three others. He stated bombers came with them as cover. he was difficulty getting in getting from the plane, owing to the fact that his parachute caught in the hatchway causing him to suspend head downwards for some time. When coming to earth his nose bled badly. After landing he was dazed and sat down for some time. he stated he heard a siren sounding (presume the al clear). It was very dark, he was in a hopeless condition walking round wet ploughed fields, he asked me how far Norwich was away (there Chapman want to first).
The man had stated that he had a map, on it was a small circle, this being the place he should have landed. A search has been made for the map but at present without success; the man could not say what had come of it. It was an ordinary British Army Reconnaissance map. The search is being continued. Later a glove was found in a drive near where his parachute was found.
At 12 noon Thursday, 17th December, 1942, Mrs. Convine rang me and stated she had what we are looking for 9the map) I asked where. She stated that whilst dusting the chair in which the man sat found the map, a glove and socks had fallen between the upholstery. She had often found things there.
I have collected these things and forwarded them to you as soon as possible.
The following is a brief statement I took from Mrs. Convine. They were from notes in my pockets book. It was not a statement taken in the usual way as I considered it best not to lead her to believe it was anything criminal.
She stated:- One morning of Wednesday, 16th December, 1942 I was in bed. I heard a siren sound the "alert" and "all clear". During the "alert" I heard a plane which I thought was a German circle overhead two or three times. Some time after the "all clear", I cannot say what time it was, I heard someone knocking on the front door. I awaked my husband and got out of bed. I called from the window "who is it"?" A man's voice replied; "A → (page 10)
KV 2/455, page 10
British Secret Service. The wireless set issued to him and which he had been trained on was British; he mentioned that he had three three of these in Germany, but he did not know of any other using them. German agents were instructed to purchase a radiogram to play whilst transmitting from England; all signs used in transmitting are British.
He stated that the Germans offered him a British uniform to use here if he wanted it. The clothing which he was wearing was mainly his own property which he had when he left this country (before the war started). he indicated that the object of sending him to this country was generally to send weather reports; location of airports; movements and concentrations of troops, transports and ships, and trains. He at first stated that he could no say if he had been in the British Army, but later he informed me that he had served about 9 months in the Coldstream Guards, finally receiving his discharge after doing 84 days detention at Aldershot for desertion. He enlisted in the Guards in 1933 in the name of Edward Chapman. In view of what he told me regarding the Guards and what he knew, it would appear that this information is correct as I should have been at the Guards depot during the same periods as he.
Generally speaking the prisoner was eager to talk but stated that he would give all the important information which he had to the British Secret Service. he stated that he had a special date to make contact with Germany.
Later the prisoner was taken to the Royal Patriotic School, Wandsworth, by Major C.M. Hughes, in company with Supt. F.G. Wells, and myself. We arrived there about 1.40 p.m. when he was handed over to M.I.5. together with his complete outfit. he was detained in custody.
I have since searched the Police Gazette and found that the prisoner was circulated as wanted in Police Gazette dated 7.2.39 case 38 in which his photograph appears with two others wanted for crime breaking and suspected of safebreaking at York City. They were stated to have been on |Bail at Edinburgh vide P.G. 17.12.38 case 17. This was later cancelled in respect of the prisoner vide P.G. 15.2.39 case 34 which stated that he was arrested at Jersey and handed over to Bournemouth on a charge of safe-blowing. This would appear to somewhat contradict the statement which he made in London that he served a term of imprisonment in Jersey, but there may be some explanation for this which would no doubt be shown in his Criminal Record. His C.R.Q. Number is 1088-35.
I respectfully suggest that a copy of this report be forwarded for the information of major C.M. Hughes, Box no. 500, Cambridge.
I am etc.
AOB, please notice - the sequence of this document/Survey is full given by the succession of subjects dealt with in the according file series.
Please notice also, albeit no yet very apparent in this document, that with increasing page numbers we are going backwards in time, the expect being the minutes sheets.
KV 2/455, page 11 (F94) (F94return)
T.A.R (= T.A. Robertson)
J.H M (= J.H. Marriott)
I went to Camp 020 today to start transmitting with Zigzag.
We first called for 12 minutes but were unable to contact the reply station, although we were able to hear them calling us all the time. At six minutes past ten the reply station said it was receiving us at QSA 2 (which is rather weakly) with interference, but gave us the O.K. (K in Morse-code: - .-, that is what the Germans actually practised) to go ahead. We then sent the message twice, but were unable to hear the reply station acknowledge that it had received our telegram which we had sent at 1002 hrs blind. We therefore repeated the message again, and although we could hear them calling us it was impossible to establish 100% correct.
The main trouble was the fact that the receiver which Zigzag has suffers very badly from "hand-capacity" and it means that when the reply station has been tuned in it is impossible to take away one's hand from the controls without the station being de-tuned.
I understand from Burton at Richmond that he was able to hear the reply station at very good strength and that after we finished working Paris asked us to change to frequency 4 so that it could hear us better (we did not hear this) and that, by the chatting which went on between Paris and Nantes or Paris and Bordeaux, it would appear that though Paris had been unable to receive or telegram one of the other stations had done so.
We intend to transmit again tomorrow morning from Camp 020, but I shall use another receiver for reception to make things just a little better.
The message sent this morning was "Have arrived. Am well with friends. O.K.".
I informed R.S.S. (RSS) yesterday evening that we should be transmitting this morning and asked if they would take a direction finding check on the station in this country.
B.1.a. 20.12.42 Sgd. R. T. Reed
KV 2/455, page 13
19th December 1942
Following our usual procedure, I am sending you a note on the case of Chapman.
From an Operational point of view it speaks for itself, but will be glad of any further questions you would like put to this man.
Home Forces are taking an interest in Chapman, and they submitted a questionnaire, but this has been held up at their request. If they pursue the matter, I will let you have their questionnaire with a copy of the replies from Chapman.
Lieut. Col. A.R. Rawlinson
Encl. Summary of Interrogation of Chapman by Major Stimson on 17.12.42 and report on matters of possible Operational interest.
KV 2/455, page 20
Statement by Chapman, handed in on 18.12.42.
To the commandant.
It is important that we have a connection with the "Boche" at earliest possible moment. why not tomorrow morning it could be done here and Dr. Graumann (Paris) specially stressed the point - He may suspect we may be arranging something - It is essential to send a message only to say - hr - nil - OK - vy73 pse - qrx - Next (a name?) - SK*. Then of course his suspicions would be allayed (relieved). he probably thinks it would take much longer for me to commence, if I was arranging something with yourselves. relying on Red Tape to stop the ball rolling.
* AOB: This astonishingly relevant HAM practice -might indicate that he must have had, in some way or another, some acquaintance with HAM CW practice; I am myself nearly 60 years a radio HAM.
Sgd. E. Chapman
P.S. Today was the supposed start of my transmission
KV 2/455, page 22
From: Lieut. Shanks. To: Lieut. colonel Stephens.
Between the end of August and the beginning of September, Graumann went to Berlin in connexion with Chapman's affairs, and on his return he told Chapman that he had brought the money for him. Chapman does not know where in Berlin Graumann obtained this money.
The money was then kept in the Dienststelle (Hotel Lutetia) safe. One hour before his departure for this country Graumann was also present at the time. Chapman did not see the money, as it was in a small waterproof case which was hung round his neck. He was merely told that there was approximately £1,000.
In the presence of the Police on his arrival in this country, he took out the money and laid it on the table. It was then noticed that a certain portion was held together by a band. He did not see this closely, however, and does not know the denomination of the notes, but he knows that the £50 and £25 notes were loose, and believes, therefore, that it was the £10 notes that were bended. The bended notes were in the middle of the pile, and he is under the impression that these represented £500.
19.12.42 Sgd. W d. Shanks?
KV 2/455, page 85 (minute 62xa)
Major Robertson (TAR)
I went to Camp 020 today and discussed with col. Stephens and Zigzag methods of running Zigzag while he was in this country.
On arrival, I saw Col. Stephens and he told me that the criminal aspect of the man's case had been covered by him in a special interrogation on the afternoon of the previous day, a report of which had already been sent to this office. Details of Zigzag's lurid past had been telephoned to him by Mr. Milmo of B.1.b the previous afternoon and it was on this information that it was decided to give Zigzag another questioning. Col. Stephens also informed me of the recommendations which he had made in regard to Zigzag, which I had not previously seen, and his suggested line of action, it transpired, was exactly similar to that upon which we had decided to act before ever seeing the results of these later interrogations. I do not need cover here Zigzag's replies to questions on his criminal record as this is already been fully dealt with by Col. Stephens in the interrogation, but the upshot of it all was that Zigzag realised he could not possibly remain free (for the time being?) in this country and that he would have to work for us under strict supervision in almost complete isolation from other members of the community.
Zigzag had handed in a statement to say that he considered it absolutely essential that we would come on the air almost immediately as Dr. Graumann had said it would be extremely suspicious if the transmission were very long delayed as he would certainly conclude that the start of the Zigzag traffic was being held up, due to the "British red tape".
I then saw Zigzag to discuss with him how we should set out about his first transmission and we decided that, in few of the few days delay in answering, we should send a short QTC, "Have arrived. Am well with friends" and that his message should be transmitted tomorrow (Sunday) morning.
At this interrogation I also discussed matters of → (page 86)
KV 2/455, page 86
rather more general interest with Zigzag, a summary of which will be sent to us by Camp 020.
It was agreed that the best thing to do would be to set up the transmitter in the vicinity of Camp 020 and Col. Stephens suggested that an excellent place would be the Equestrian Club, which is a small concert hall about 150 yards away from Camp 020 and outside the precincts (boundaries) of the Camp proper. This concert hall is only in use on very rare occasions and is fitted with electric light, stands in its own grounds and there is nearby a very convenient flag pole some 25 ft. high which would serve as an aerial mast. I went there with Major Stimpson and Capt. Short and we fitted up the transmitter erected the aerial and tested the apparatus when it seemed to give good results. It is proposed to bring Zigzag from Camp 020 at the appointment tomorrow morning by driving him in the "Blu Maria" with three officers and myself in attendance.
I fell I should say here that everyone at Camp 020 gave the utmost possible assistance and were willing to help in every way. (it should be said: including Edward Chapman)
B.1.a. 19.12.42. Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/455, page 104 (minute 61x)
R.T.R. (R.T. Reed)
We have chosen the name of Zig Zag (Zigzag) for (German cover name: Fritzchen). I should be glad if would get this confirmed in the usual way with Miss Johnson, etc.
B.1.a. 18.12.42. T.A. Robertson (TAR) (Major)
KV 2/455, page 106 (minute 60y)
1. At the end of a long investigation of Chapman yesterday I furnished a report dated 17.12.42, which accompanied all re relevant papers. My opinion was that Chapman should be used for XX (Double-Cross) purposes, that Camp 020 was no place from which he could be used, but that he should be kept under active supervision, I added in view of his past that I did not think he could safely be used out of England.
2. Late last night I called a meeting of the officers concerned to discuss various aspect of the case. The most important issue was the use of Chapman as an agent. I fully appreciate this is an issue for decision outside Camp 020, but it does seen to me that the opinions of the officers who have investigated the case and who have had an opportunity to assess Chapman's capabilities, may be of value. The outcome of this discussion is therefore set out in the attachment to this report.
3. From the point of view of the British contre-espionage Service, I think the opinion in the paragraph 1 above is essentially sound. If, however, the problem is considered from the United Nations' point of view (AOB, did he point at the Allies?) point of view, there is a case for sending Chapman abroad. Chapman's present mission in England may be described as a limit objective. The German Secret Service are anxious for his return in two and a half months' time in order that he will participate in a sabotage scheme on a large scale in America. Contre-espionage on behalf of America is an issue of major policy, and is quite outside the function of Ham (?). Recent cooperation with the F.B.I. does, however, bring the issue into focus and this further opinion is therefore forwarded from Ham (?) for what it is worth.
Encl.: Memorandum giving the opinions of officers who examined Chapman.
Copy of Manifesto handed in by Chapman on 18.12.42 relevant to the above.
KV 2/455, page 107
from: Captain Goodacre. to: lieut. Colonel Stephens
- - -
As a result of the discussion with the Commandant last night, general agreement was reached on the following six points:-
1. Chapman genuinely wants wants to work for the British against the Germans. By his courage and resourcefulness he is ideally fitted to be an agent, and, in addition, enjoys the full confidence of Dr. Graumann. If he is to be used, however, it is essential there should be no delay in starting him off.
2. he was sent over here for the limited period of two and a half months and with one main mission, namely, to try to blow up the machine-shop of the de Havilland factory at Hatfield. This was not, however, an enterprise to be carried out at all costs. Only if it could be successfully achieved without undue risk was he to undertake it; on no account was he to risk his life unnecessarily.
3. At the end of two and a half months, whether he had managed to blow up the factory or not, he was to return to France by one of the three routes in order to join a party of saboteurs already in training to be sent to America for a really big job.
4. In our opinion, Chapman should be used to the fullest extent. This means that, in view of the importance the Germans evidently attach to this American sabotage project, he should be sent back to France when his mission in this country has been completed.
The ideal plan would be to stage an explosion at the De Havilland works which would leave signs of damage visible from the air. It would be for camouflage and other experts to determine whether or not this is practicable and how best this part of the scheme could be carried out. If it could not be done convincingly it would be better no to attempt it.
5. Chapman has also intimated that he could, if we wished, take another agent back with him. This was a suggestion made to him by the Germans and in our opinion merely indicates that the thought the milieu of crooks and safe-breakers in which he formerly moved well yielded another valuable recruit of the same calibre as himself. This, however, is not a proposal which should be adopted.
6. While fully appreciating the risk which inevitably attach in sending back Chapman, we feel that the importance of the information he will be able to obtain when he does get back far exceeds that of any information he may secure here and - should he return against us - impart (tell) to the enemy.
Camp 020. 18.12.42. EBG/MA (EBG likely stood for E.B. Goodacre)
KV 2/455, page 108
Copy of Manifesto handed in by Chapman on 18.2.42.
To the commandant.
Sir, one does not expect gratitude from one's own country - but allow me to draw your attention to a few facts. For thirteen months now I have been under German rule. During this time even while undergoing detention I was treated with strict fairness and friendliness. despite the fact I was under very grave charges of sabotage against the German Army - - I mad many friends - people who I respect and who I think came to like me - unfortunately for them and for me, I set out from the very first day to try and mass together a series of facts, places, dates etc. concerning German organisation, which I think would be a task fairly formidable ever for one of your trained experts. From the start I was very much handicapped, my knowledge of German was slight, my French until I mastered it even learning the slang. I read it now as fluently as English, although naturally I speak with my native accent which as in most Englishmen is most strong. German I can understand and can carry out a simple conversation. Then, sir, I proceeded - for nine months - I listened intently to every conversation I could hear(/) - I opened drawer containing many documents -"Geheim" written on all of them - I poured over dictionaries trying to decipher them - I only half understood - Alas for my lack of education - I bored very small holes from from the bathroom to the room of Dr. Graumann - a man who was very much a friend. Several time I was disgusted with myself - much more than I can ever explain. I sometimes wondered deeply which was the greatest, love of one's country or love of one's friends. On one side you may draw the picture for yourself. Here I am outcast from my own country - a criminal - a man who never had any friends in England suddenly be friended and shown kindness and for the first time treated like a normal human being. Don't think I am asking for my friendship now it's a little late. On the other side this strange thing patriotism. I laugh a little cynically when I think of it sometimes. I have fought the fight and my country won (why I can't explain). I wish like hell there had been no war - I Begin to wish I had never started this affair. Tp spy and cheat on one's friends (AOB, the Germans I suppose) is not nice and dirty.
However, I started this affair and I will finish it. Many things can be done in France (sabotage etc. - report of movements of troops - a trip to all German principle towns is to be organised for me - I need training quickly - "only in what you want to know". I can arrange radio transmissions for you. If you like an agent can come safely along with me only you must have confidence in me - allow me to arrange things other wise the whole thing is going to be spoilt. Do not bring or arrest any of the two agents, who I have mentioned yet. The whole can be done in one blow. How I can tell you - Don't think I ask anything for this I don't - you have a thousand pounds enough to finance my mission in France if any more is needed the German Government will supply it. It seems very strange the working of the two different governments - one offers me a chance of money success and a career. The other a prison cell. There is not a great deal of time left to arrange things. Two months - three months. A prison cell naturally breeds confidence. Am I misquoting - when I saw a prison cell like poisoned weeds - breeds darkness and despair (hopelessness).
To conclude speed is a very early need.
(Sgd.) Edward Chapman.
Camp 020. 18.12.42
KV 2/455, page 111 (minute 59x)
We have decided to call this agent's radio traffic "Zink" (Zink!). The Zinc reply station was calling this morning at about three minutes intervals from 0945 to 1015 BST (British Standard Time) At one time the reply station thought that it had heard Zigzag and said (transmitted) "RR OK" (AR or KR OK - Morse code -.-) (I am receiving you satisfactorily)
B.1.a. 18.12.42 Sgd. R,T Reed.
KV 2/455, page 112 (minute 58)
B.3.b. (Mr. Hughes).
As you know, this man (Chapman) has now arrived, bringing with him a small mains-operated suitcase transmitter which was originally supplied to one of our agent of S.O.E. or S.I.S.
(F94) (F94return) He has the following crystals:-
He (Chapman) does not know the frequencies on which the reply was to be made, but says it is the same as he has been listening to for many months past and will be calling him with the call sign DAR from 0845 to 0950 GMT each morning for about two months.
As the transmitter is well known to us (as it was Britain made; the receiver was of inferior quality!) and as it is no different from any of those supplied to S.O.E. agents there does not really seem any necessity for you to have this for examination. Nevertheless if you feel that you would like to see it I should be only too pleased to send it to you, but this may be difficult at the moment as there is a tentative proposrtion to start using this man tomorrow morning.
This is in the nature of an interim report as no interrogations have yet taken place.
B.1.a. 17.12.42 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/455, page 113 (minute 56b) (AOB, please remind: that with increasing page numbers you go backwards in time)
Report dated 17th December 1942
1. M.I.5 have been aware, through a secret source (M.S.S.; MSS), of the intended arrival by parachute of an Irish born German spy named Arnold Edward Chapman. After several postponements the Germans did in fact drop Chapman from a Focke-Wulf reconnaissance machine on the night of 15/16 December in Cambridgeshire. He landed at 2.25 hours on 16.12.42 and immediately took steps to inform the police of his arrival. At the same time he placed himself at the disposal of the British authorities to work against the Germans. he was accordingly taken to the London Reception Centre, where Colonel Hinchley Cooke took a statement from him. The original intention was that he should thereafter be handed over direct to B.1.a (Major Robertson) but it transpired during Colonel Hinchley Cooke's investigation that Chapman has a criminal record in this country which included safe breaking and escaping from prison. It was therefore decided that Chapman be sent to Camp 020 for custody overnight and examination. On arrival in Camp 020 at 19,00 hours the mean was mentally and physically spent (used-up), so that little purpose served by examination overnight.
2. At 09.30 hours I interrogated Chapman and the investigation has progressed throughout the day. At 14.30 hours Major Stimson returned the property in the case to M.I.5 and took with him draft summaries of interrogations, which indicated the position up to 13.00 hours. Verbatim records of the whole investigation will be at St. James'(M.I.5 HQ) this evening. The summaries and the full records speak for themselves, so that recapitulation is unnecessary.
3. Under interrogation Chapman has been candid (truthful). There are remarkably few discrepancies in material that can be checked, and the consensus of opinion among the officers who have seen him is that they are natural inexactitudes. Motive is a streak of hatred for the Hun coupled with a sense of adventure. There is no woman in the case and no bargain for rehabilitation. he is possessed of courage and nerve. My opinion is that Chapman should be used for XX (Double-Cross) purposes, that Camp 020 is no place from which he could be used, but that he should be kept under active supervision. In view of his past I do not think he can safely be used out of England.
4. First contact with the Germans should be established by the transmission of a W/T message from Chapman between 09.45 hours and 10.15 hours on 18.12.42. In view of this urgency I asked for a B.1.a representative to see Chapman at 14.30 hours today. Mr. Reed duly examined Chapman on the technical aspect of the case. At the same time code details already obtained was shown to (R.T.) Reed→ (page 114)
KV 2/455, page 114
and a specimen message was checked. Mr. Reed returned to St. James' (M.I.5's HQ) with the W/T transmitter.
5. The investigation continues.
Encl: Summary of Interrogation by Major Sampson, Captain Short and Goodacre, taken by hand to St. James'.
KV 2/455, page 188
An English Parachutist.
This code is based on the word: "Constantinople" which is agreed upon before the agent's departure. Constantinople is then given its numerical position in the alphabet in the following manner and multiplied by the date on which the transmission takes place. In this case the 8th has been chosen.
C O N S T A N T I N O P L E
2 9 6 12 13 1 7 14 4 8 10 11 5 3
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
23 6 8 97 05 3 7 15 8 4 80 92 2 4
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
The next procedure:
Write out the alphabet in full, giving each letter its numerical position.
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26
The result of the multiplication is then written out and the message to be transmitted - in this case:
'I have arrived and in good health'
is written below.
It will be noticed that the first 5 letters are 'f's This is the agreed sign between this agent and his German Control that he is operating of his own free will. Should he be forced to transmit, the omission of the 5 'f's would immediately disclose to the Germans Control that he had had been apprehended (seized).
The method of Coding:
Add 'f' (which is 6th letter) to the 2 above it, making 8, and selecting the 8th letter in the alphabet -'h'-
In the second instance 'f' again (the 6th letter in the alphabet), added to 3, making 9 is -'i' -
This method is continued throughout the message including the signature 'Fritz'.
2 3 6 8 9 7 0 5 3 7 1 5 8 4 8 0 9 2 2 4
f f f f f I H A V E x A R R I V E D A N
h i l n o p h f y l y f z v q v n f c r
D I N G O O D H E A L T H x F R I T Z x
f l t o x v d m h h m y p b n r r v b b
The Group of 5.
are then read off horizontally instead of vertically as in the other cases.
Thus: HILNO PHFYL YFZVQ VNFOR FLTOX VDMHH MYPEN RRVBB
It is always necessary to include the exact number of letters in the code before commencing the coded groups of five.
KV 2/455, page 189
The Call Sign:
This varies each day and is based on the first 3 letters from the left of the multiplication converted into letters of the alphabet.
As an example:
Call sign on the day on which the example has been prepared 98th) would be
BCF (i.e. 2,3,6).
Answering call of the control:
This was constantly fixed DAR.
- - -
This agent was in possession of no less than five crystals, but was instructed to transmit on 6654 kHz, unless conditions were practically bad in which case the German Control station would indicate to him the number of the crystal to be employed.
The hour of transmission was always 9.45 a.m. to 10.15 a.m.
This rather unusual as of course it is in daylight. The agent, however, is in possession of an all-mains transmitter of British manufacture which will be operated inside a room and he has stated that the hour of transmission was chosen by himself as in his opinion people would be far less suspicious at the time of the day rather than in the evening.
As a matter of interest he states that they are in possession of 9 similar type British sets and that they are able to effect repairs without much difficulty.
For his practice transmission in France - that is to say between the Dienststelle at Nantes and the receiving station in Paris - the code was based on the word 'Buttermilch' ('buttermilk'). This agent was to be received by no less than 3 stations, namely Bordeaux, Nantes and Paris.
AOB: for me it is always a balance act, what is historically relevant, and the fact of some details. Maybe not very relevant, but nevertheless, essential are Chapman's criminal records.
KV 2/455, page 197 (minute 53a)
C.160/Region 11. 16th December, 1942.
Dear TA (Robertson)
Edward Edwards @ Chapman (Arnold Edward Chapman)
As arranged over the telephone this afternoon the following is the information contained in the Edinburgh Police records regarding the above man.
London, 1914 (actually
on 6 Nov. 1914,
at Burnup Field near Newcastle)
Height: 6 ft. slim build.
Hair: Dark brown.
Occupation: film Extra or professional Dancer.
Distinguish Marks: Scar on left knee.
On 8.1.35 at Westminster Police Court, for being found in an enclosed garden he was bound over and had to pay surety of £10 for twelve months.
On 9.2.35 at Bow Street Police Court, he was charged with:
1.) Stealing a cheque from a hotel.
2.) Obtaining credit by fraud.
3.) Obtaining £1 by false pretences.
when he was sentenced to 2,2 months' hard labour, to run consecutively (serially). At his appearance he took the name of Arnold Edward Chapman.
On 18.2.35 at Westminster Police Court, for being found in an enclosed garden, he was sentenced to 3 months' hard labour to run concurrently with his sentence imposed on 9.2.35. At this appearance he took the name Edward Chapman.
On 14.4.36 he appeared at Marlborough Street Police Court on a charge of behaving in a manner likely to offend the public, when he was fined £4 and had to pay a doctor's fee of 15/9d, with the alternative of 14 days' imprisonment. At this appearance he took the name of Edward Chapman. → (page 198)
KV 2/455, page 198
On 28.4.36 at County of London Sessions, he was sentenced to 9 months' hard labour for obtaining credit, food and lodgings by fraud. At his appearance he took the name of Edward Arnold Chapman.
On 7.3.39 he was due to appear at Edinburgh High Court charged with housebreaking and attempt to open lock-fast premises by means of explosives, when he failed to put in an appearance having previously been liberated on bail. A warrant was issued for his arrest but later it was decided to take no proceedings in the Edinburgh case.
Edwards subsequently appeared at the Jersey Royal Court on a charge of burglary and safe-breaking. (see below)
On or about 11.3.39 he appeared at the Jersey Royal Court on a charge of burglary and safe-breaking when he was sentenced to 2 years' hard labour. At his appearance he took the name of Edward Edwards.
On or about 24th July, 1939, it came to the notice of the Edinburgh Police that Chapman had escaped from H.M. Prison, Jersey. He was later arrested in London on a charge of safe-breaking and appeared on 22nd March, 1939, at the London central Criminal court but no proceedings were taken.
On 4th September, 1939, he appeared at the Royal Court, jersey, on a charge of theft when he was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment to run consecutively with the sentence imposed on him at the same court on 11th March 1939.
(Note: Chapman must have escaped from H.M. Prison, jersey, a few days later, as he appeared on 22.3.39 at the London central criminal Court.)
Edwards Edwards @ Chapman during the eight months prior to December, 1938, resided at 92, Sterndale Road, Shepherd's Bush, London, W 14., where he occupied a room and cohabited with a professional dancer named Freda White. The boarding house keeper at the address is named Arthur Collings. from 23rd November 1938, Edwards resided at St. Regis Hotel, Cork Street, London, W.1.
I shall be seeing Detective Inspector who dealt with this case tomorrow and will let you have any further details, which may be available.
Sgd. Yours sincerely, R.T. Watt (Captain)
Major T.A. Robertson (M.I.5)
Box 500, Parliament St. B.O.,
KV 2/455, page 226 (minute 36a)
From B.1.a. Mr. Reed To B.1.B (the first and the second belonged to M.I.5) Mr. Hart
It may be of intelligence interest that Fritzchen said in clear at 13.00 G.M.T. today that he could not keep his schedule this morning as he was having a hair-cut.
8.10.42 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/455, page 241 (minute 29a)
AOB, by means of MSS British Intelligence was quite well informed about a new agent Fritzchen arriving in England.
The Search for agent X.
Probably before the 9th October there will be dropped in this country by parachute an enemy agent who has a mission for espionage and sabotage in London.
We have the following particulars for identification purposes:
The agent is almost certainly of British nationality, and possibly from Jersey, Channel Island. (AOB, just linking the facts incorrectly!).
He is probably under 30 (actually 27/28), and about 6' tall.
Certainly canine tooth, if not more, replaced by false one.
he will be in possession of two Identity Cards, one showing him be an Irishman resident in England, and the other showing him to be an Englishman resident in England. One or both may be green. One or both of the names may be Chapman. (AOB, I is astonishing how well informed the British were by intercepting and decrypting German W/T communications!)
Ration Book (probably forged abroad).
Agent X will probably bury his equipment as soon after making his landing possible.
He will probably be supplied with an English Receiver (of an inferior quality) Radio set adapted for transmission and possibly one or all of the following: an address in Portugal: Chemical material fro secret writing: Guide or maps of London.
English military boots and ankle bandages for the parachute jump.
KV 2/455, page 244 (minutes 27a)
1. Arrangements have been made with Fighter command, Stanmore, for an M.I.5. representative in the person of Col. Stanford to have free access to Fighter Command and the Operations Room there whenever it is considered necessary. Col. Stanford's duty will be to follow incoming aircraft tracks and, if possible, to identify by its behaviour the aircraft carrying agent X and indicate the operational area into which he will probably have been landed by parachute. Having given to this area an approximate map reference, Col. Stanford will telephone this to the N.D.O. with the Code reference Nightcap.
2. The following Directive has been given to Night Duty Officers.
(i) If a call is received from Section V of S.I.S. (AOB: Section V is M.I.6; though could imply an agent inside the German organisation in France, as I myself doubt that MSS was considered directly to Section V!) referring to operation Nightcap and indicating the possibility that it is intended for the same night on which you receive the message, you should at once communicate with Col. Stanford at the private address, telephone number: Westerham: 276, in order that he may proceed to Fighter Command. Then ring mr. D.G. White (M.I.5) at his private telephone number: Slone 1778 (or as in N.D.O. book)
(ii) On receipt of a call from colonel Standford, Fighter Command, Stanmore, commencing with the code word Nightcap, you will be given a map reference for ordnance Survey map. You will immediately telephone to the R.S.L.O., of R.S.L.O's if more than one is affected, in whose area the map reference comes, using his private telephone number and beginning with the code word Nightcap. You will pass on the map reference and any further details which may have been supplied to you by Col. Stanford.
Having done this will you notify Mr. D.G. White (M.I.5) at his private telephone number: Sloane 1778 (or as in N.D.O.'s book)
The map reference will be in the form, 1. Two letters indicating the big group square, and 2. Four figures, the first two of which will be eastings, and the second two of which will be northings, example specimen attached. → (page 245)
KV 2/455, page 245
(iii) Private telephone numbers of R.S.L.O's in the probable areas are:
Major M. Ryde, Region 6, Kintbury: 29
Capt. M. Hughes, Region 4, Comberton: 279
Major Grassby, Region 12, Tonbridge Wells: 23
Major Finney, Region 3, Nottingham: 65894
(iv) You will find available in the N.D.O.'s room:
a. Map showing boundaries of Regions.
b. Ordnance Survey Maps of Counties (10 miles to 1").
3. The R.S.L.O. or R.S.L.O's who receive word from the N.D.O. that operation Nightcap falls in their area will take the earliest opportunity of consulting with the relevant Chief Constable to whom he will tell the full story, i.e. that a parachute agent is believed to have landed in the area and that he is very probably a man of whom we have had prior notification of arrival by a report from abroad which we consider very reliable (being an British agent, or a German; or via RSS intercept). Concerning this man certain details are known. These are as follows:
a. Personal and descriptive: Agent X is almost certainly of British nationality. he probably under 30 and about 6'tall.
b. Personal papers: He will probably be supplied with two identity cards, forged abroad, in which case they will probably lack the Ministry of Food stamp. One or both of these cards may bear the name Chapman, though this is not certain. he will also be supplied with a Ration Book, forged abroad.
c. Equipment: Agent X will probably have buried his equipment as soon after making his landing as possible. Should he however, come to notice before he has had the opportunity he may be expected to have in his possession, an English Receiver Radio Set, adapted for transmission, and possibly guides or maps to London. For the purpose of the parachute jump he will probably wear boots of English military type and, underneath, ankle bandages. These, like the rest of his equipment, he will probably, if he had the opportunity, have hidden.
(the above is the story you should tell to your Chief → (page 246)
KV 2/455, page 246
Constable, but please not that you have been supplied with further important details which, because of its secrecy of the source, you should not communicate to anyone else. They are for your personal use only in assisting to identify anyone who is thrown up by the search.
With the help of the Chief Constable you should survey the operational area and decide whether, having regard to the nature of the country and the reliability or otherwise of its divisional police, you are able to lay on a very wide and complete search. The decision in this matter is left to your discretion but whatever you do you should emphasize to all your collaborators the vital necessity of keeping the search as quite as possible and attaching the utmost secrecy to any arrest effected. In view of the secrecy attached to the search you should discuss with the Chief constable the best cover story for the police for performing their instructions. The public must be told, even when Identity Cards are being asked for, that a parachute agent is being looked for. It should be possible for the cover to to take the form of a search for a deserter, or anything more appropriate to your particular area.
If, as the result of this search, you effect an arrest and are reasonably certain that you have the man we are looking for, you should then telephone Head Office, and after consultation make make arrangements for Agent X, to be taken as quickly and as quietly as possible, under guard, to Camp 020.
It should be possible to arrange with your Chief Constable or Superintendent of Police of Police to detain Agent X under D.R. (Home Office Order) 18D, but if you fail in this an order will be signed by Capt. Liddell under the 'Arrival from enemy territory act'.
4. If the search in the immediate operational area has proved unsuccessful, it will be necessary subsequently to lay on a comb (search) out of the boarding houses, hotels etc. with a view to locating a new arrival answering to the few descriptive details available. For this point, the instructions to the police will have to be camouflaged and it is suggested that, with the authority of the Chief Constable, it should be possible to organise such a search without saying ,ore than that a wanted man is believed to have arrived in the neighbourhood who should be located and reported to you. If, from the report, an identification seems possible, you should take action on the lines indicated in paragraph 3.
A.D.B.1. 2.10.42 Sgd. D.G. White (M.I.5)
KV 2/455, page 252
His sabotage and W/T training.
The agent has undergone an intensive course in sabotage of a general nature. Trained for approximate three to four months by members of the well known sabotage (z.b.V. 800 became later also known as Brandenburg Division) in France under the direct supervision of one Rittmeister (Hauptmann; Captain) von Groening, who is at the head of an important station at Nantes, he has now become a fully fledged (mature) saboteur, and is also in a position to prepare and concoct sabotage and incendiary materials.
During these months he followed an equally intensive and parallel course in wireless transmission. We know from information derived from one of his instructors, that, while under instruction, he practised transmission by sending messages in English and French. The W/T set which he hopes to use will probably be one of our own having recently fallen into the hands of the enemy as a result of the arrest of one of our own agents operating abroad. His wireless equipment will also probably include a collapsable transmitting aerial.
Towards mid-September he was reported to be capable of operating his W/T set perfectly.
KV 2/455, page 253
An alternative reporting route. (H97) (H97return)
The Germans considered that an alternative method of transmitting intelligence from this country other than W/T was advisable for this agent.
They expected their man to communicate to them (the Germans) by letter-post via Portugal (when you digest the H97 link you will notice that he did so extensively even in 1945!) as well, and we have reason to believe that we already know the cover-address to be used in Lisbon.
In order to communicate information through this medium, the agent has trained in secret writing since the beginning this month, and it would appear that he is now in a position to make use of this channel correctly.
KV 2/455, page 257
Dear Dick White?
T-R tells me that you would like a note of the cipher used by Fritzchen (Chapman) in his practice-traffic, Group II/335 (J97) (J97return).
The cipher is the form of Vigenère known as Gronsfield. It works as follows:
Choose a series of numbers, e.g. 99808487186, and write them over the letters of your message thus:-
099803487186| 99803487186 | 998034 etc.
LIEBERFRITZ |XICHWUENSCH |EDITALLLES
Encipher this by counting on through the alphabet from the letter of the clear text as far as the number written above it goes, e.g.
9 letters on from L = U
9 letters on from I = R
8 letters on from E = M
0 letters on from B = B
3 letters on from E = H
4 letters on from R = V
8 letters on from F = N
7 letters on from R = Y
1 letters on from I = J
8 letters on from T = B
6 letters on from Z = H
and so forth, repeating the key-numbers again over the next piece of text.
Fritzchen has now started keeping to the same key-numbers every day, so solution should be automatic. He was originally instructed to change his key-numbers every day, and he did so regularly up to 14.8.42.
KV 2/455, page 260
It is apparent from Most secret Sources (RSS intercepts) that the following things have occurred during the training of the Fritzchen in regard to his radio practice.
He was training on morse key and buzzer at Lannes House on 25.6.42, and had reached a speed of 65 letters per minute (13 words per minute) on 9.7.42. Twice daily practice in code was going on on 9.7.42 and on the same day he was taught a new wireless cypher. On 17.7.42 he was instructed to change the key every day for his cypher and to send short messages in English or French. This is a rather interesting point as it may mean that when he arrives in this country he will send his messages in English, and also that it is apparent that Fritzchen speaks English quite well.
He was shown how to erect an emergency transmitting aerial and given instructions on transmitting at night on 24.7.42, and these instructions were amplified with the use of an adapted English W/T set on 14.8.42.
B.1.a. 19.9.42 Sgd. R.T Reed
KV 2/455, page 261
This is a list of peculiarities which have been noted on the Fritzchen traffic during the time that his signal have been intercepted by us since 18th August:
1) Break in operation has always been used and considerable difficulty in maintaining communication has been noted. (AOB, this implied: that both stations operated at different frequencies. My good friend Rudolf Staritz, who himself was a wartime Abwehr W/T Funker (spark); he explained - that when during communication something went wrong, the counter-side only transmitted one or two dots, which were received, and constituted just the clue of Break-in operation)
2) Very familiar and friendly method of ending a transmission has often been employed by sending 2 dots after the final SK and then a further dot on sign off.
3) Zero has always been sent in sort numerals, i.e. nought = T.
4) "No" is indicated by the letter N.
5) The break sign is often sent two letters - T and V.
6) Q is often sent like the two letters AA.
7) BF? means "Is my message decipherable?"
8) The expression 73, meaning "best regards", is always used at the end of transmission, together with 69 and 99, which are respectively more luke-warm and stronger in feeling then 73.
9) typical expression are follows:
QRX TMW 1500 - AR K
TKS OB - VY 73 SK
QSA3 hr NIL QRU AR K
QSUI - HR AR
B.1.a. 16.9.42 R.T. Reed
KV 2/455, page 269 (minute 15a)
So far we have intercepted a training transmission from Fritzchen on the 18th August, when he sent a 75 word message and ended the transmission with a certain amount of amateur chat.
The agent was also intercepted on the 19th August, at 19.06 BST (British Standard Time), when he appeared to be testing his transmitter. he did not send any message and I have just received information that the next scheduled time of transmission is at 14.00 BST today. Some attempts have been made at recording this agent on a record, but so far they have proved unsuccessful as much interference has been experienced around the transmission frequency, but we have a full record of his method of coding and transmission, and repetition of groups, and what general chat he finishes up transmitting.
The speed of transmission at the moment is about 12 words per minute, and when Fritzchen tries to increase this he only succeeds in making corrupt characters and in fumbling (clumsy) with his key. This information is born out by message on the most secret sources.
B.1.a. (M.I.5) 20.8.42. Sgd. R.T. Reed
Copy for Mr. Hart, B.1.b. (M.I.5)
KV 2/455, page 272 (minute 14a)
19th August, 1942
Dear (name -according S.I.S. practice deleted)
I have now received a report from Baxter in Manchester on the background of Robert William Chapman. you will note that the W. in Chapman's name stands for William, not Walter. It does not appear that Chapman's family have any connections on the Continent or in the Channel Islands. The only relative known to be residing abroad is said to be an aunt living in Australia. Chapman's sister Marion has heard from her brother through the Red Cross since he was taken prisoner, and the address he has given her is Corporal R.W. Chapman 12668, Kriegsgefangenlager, der Luftwaffe, Nr. 3, Stalag Luft.
3. The letter stated that he was captured on 7.2.42 and admitted to the camp on 11.5.42. From a letter sent to another relative, the sister gathered that her brother had escaped and had been recaptured, for which the Germans had punished him, so that he is now deaf. She also gathered from previous letters that he had been transferred to airborne or paratroops and had been in Russia.
As far as Chapman's general background is concerned, nothing is known to the detriment of any of his family politically, but seems that, owing to ill health of his parents, the children were allowed to run wild, and Chapman and the sister, Marion, both committed petty acts of stealing, and he was finally sent to an Industrial School until the age of 16.
H.L.A. Hart (M.I.5)
S.I.S. (name deleted)
KV 2/455, page 280 (minute 11a)
The operator referred to as FFF is at Nantes. There are two parallel services from control at Paris to Nantes, i.e. 2/375 (see for example (K98) (K98return)) and 2/2/335. The latter service is also referred to as FFF and appears to be used as a practice channel.
Record: FFF was first reported on 15/7/42.
On 30/7/42 it was reported that the operator FFF was ill, and from subsequent chat it was apparent that he suffered from considerable dental trouble between 30/7/42 and 10/8/42.
FFF (Fritzchen) seems to be a new operator. He is slow and makes frequent mistakes and his formation of symbols is poor.
Characteristics of transmitter in use at present.
Station at Nantes using call HIR on 5025 kHz working DAR on 4637 kHz at Paris. Times by QRX in conjunction with Service 2/375 (see below). The following are details of Nantes transmitter:-
Frequency: Crystal controlled
Note: T8 (not optimal keyed carrier quality) (likely due to the fact that he operated a British made S.I.S. transmitter)
signal strength in this country: Day QSA 2-3 (more or less understanding)
Night QSA 1 (hardly copied)
Interception of Service 2/335
This service is very closely associated with 2/375 and comes up just after the contacts of the latter service.
2/375 control (Paris) uses call HQO on 4637 kHz and works to OSF on 5025 kHz at Nantes. Times are by QRK in DSZ (likely DGZ = Deutsche Gesetzlichezeit). Usually QRX times are 0530, 0800, 1300, 2030, 2230.
On indication from control, e.g. "PSE test FFF" both transmitters turn round and use the calls of 2/335.
12.8.42 R.S.S. (Radio Security Service)
Finish KV 2/455
to be continued with:
KV 2/456-1, page 1
Edward Arnold Chapman
Code name Zigzag (Zig-Zag)
KV 2/456-1, page 2
J.H. Marriott (M.I.5)
J.C. Masterman (M.I.5)
In view of the great difficulty in obtaining contact on ZIGZAG I asked R.S.S. (Radio Security Service, the service particularly monitoring Abwehr related wireless) yesterday evening at 2100 hrs. to arrange for a listening check on our (Nantes) at 0945 this morning. They have reported reception of our (German) signals as follows:-
Barnet QSA 4
Bridgewater QSA ½
Thurso QSA 3
Not heard elsewhere.
I consider this quite satisfactory as at 600 miles (Thurso), so that almost certainly at Paris we should be of reasonable strength if their (RSS) receivers are good. It is to be expected that Bridgewater should report at QSA ½, as the orientation of the aerial is such that its highest free point is to the west and transmission is concentrated towards the south and north, with a certain radiation to the east. (AOB, is becomes evident, that those who consider simply the direction of a kind of long-wire antenna is most essential, that they are indeed laymen, as within the skip concerned, most are NEVIS conditions; where the main radiation goes mainly vertically upwards to a Heaviside layer - and being reflected from there within a range of up to 500 km at least (more or less vertically) downwards to the earth. For night-times the condx are a bit different.)
It is also clear from most secret sources that when we send our messages blind these are successfully intercepted at Nantes and that the enemy is making arrangements for the erection of a receiving station at a good location in order to obtain our (sent on behalf of Chapman / Zigzag) messages. It is rather difficult to see, therefore, why they do not send a transmitter to Nantes to reply to us, as they have no difficulty in copying signals there. (AOB: Nantes is about the mouth of the Loire river and wed-soil might act favourable)
B.1.a. 6.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/456-1, page 5 (minute 105d)
B.1.a. (Major Robertson).
With reference to the attached travel permit I am inclined to think that the whole document may be a forgery, but I cannot be absolutely certain about this point. A comparison of this document with a genuine travel permit issued in October 1939 shows that is slightly bigger than the genuine document, but only very slightly. Equally, the type at the bottom of page six is larger than that on the genuine card. I am however getting one or two more genuine documents for comparison.
The most serious mistake is that the stamp of the Department of Internal Affairs. There is no such Department in Eire and similar documents bear the stamp of the department of External Affairs, which is, of course, the correct one.
I have spoken to mr. perks and shown him the Immigration officers stamp. It seems certain that this must be a forgery, but it undoubtedly a very good one/ The figure 4 in the stamp however, indicates the number of of the immigration Officer No. 4 was on duty at Fishguard on the 8th December 1939. This may, I am afraid, take a little time, as there is no longer an Immigration Officer at Fishguard and it will be necessary to go through old records.
B.1.h. 6.1.43 Sgd. ??
KV 2/456-1, page 7 (minute 105b)
I arranged with S/Ldr. Gatey that he and I should accompany Zigzag by car to the De Havilland works tomorrow, so that Zigzag can see at close quarters the main boiler house of the works.
We decided to leave the car in the car park, near to the main structure, so that Zigzag will be able to see over what part of the factory camouflage should be erected to give the impression that the power house had been effectively sabotaged.
B.1.a. 6.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/456-1, page 8 (minute 102b)
A meeting was held yesterday afternoon between Major Robertson, Mr. Marriott, Major Masterman and myself (R.T. Reed) to decide the next steps we should take in connection with Zigzag.
Zigzag had admitted that he is not prepared to return for the specific purpose of joining the American saboteurs, but that he wishes to have a free hand when when he goes back. The type of questionnaire which we should give him would therefore be one which would not convey any Intelligence information to the enemy should he be forced to reveal it on his return. A rough outline of the instructions to be given to him would therefore be on the following lines:-
(1) that he should return to France, probably obtaining a passage on a ship to Lisbon.
(2) that he should transmit on the Nantes transmitter, if it is possible for him to obtain access to the transmitter room, and that he should send messages in a code which was could arrange to be incorporated in his ham-chat. In addition, he could also send short messages in another code, similar to the one with which he was provided by the enemy but based upon a different code word.
(3) that he should accept any new espionage mission which would be given to him on return and agree to any future proposition which are put to him.
(4) that he should collect information on the lines of a questionnaire which will be prepared by Mr. (J.W.A.) Gwyer on data which we have already obtained from agents who have been captured and disposed of (executed?) in this country.
It was decided that Zigzag should not be given a military questionnaire as if, on return, he began to make enquiries about military personnel and activities in an obvious fashion it would create unnecessary suspicion.
B.1.a. 5.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
(AOB, also bear in mind - that the KV 2/xxx series are running with increasing PDF page number backwards in time)
KV 2/456-2, page 37
Summary of Interrogation of Chapman by Lieut. Shanks.
Present: Lieut. Corden.
time 14.30 - 14.40 hrs.
- - -
Chapman had now remembered the names of two of the people to whom he had previously referred. These were:-
1. Hans Wilhe
ims, known to the French as 'Jean'.
This was the name of the first chauffeur at Nantes Dienststelle.
2. Frau Stahl, or Stall. This was the woman who once visited the Dienststelle at Mantes.
The contract Chapman signed was signed also by Dr. Graumann representing the German government, and Thomas. It was drawn up by a German lawyer and typed in English. Its main points were as follows;-
1. The first part consisted in warnings to Chapman not to divulge (disclose) formulae or names of people or places known to him through his work for the Germans, under penalty of death.
2. Payment: Chapman was to receive 12,000 Francs a month while he was in France. This was paid from the date of his release until he left France. During his stay in this country (England), even if he were imprisoned, Chapman was to be paid at the rate of 300 RM a month, to accumulate at Nantes, without time-limit. When his work in England was finished, Chapman was to receive £15,000 or 150,000 RM or, if he preferred, could claim the equivalent of his sum in francs.
The contract was signed at Nantes during the summer, Graumann having brought it back with him from berlin, but Chapman cannot give the date of it nor remember after which Graumann's visits to Berlin was signed. Graumann signed the contract 'Edward Chapman'.
Graumann told Chapman (though this did not appear in the contract) that when his work in England was completed he could, if he chose, consider himself free of the Germans. On his return to France he would merely have to report to Berlin. he would then be given a holiday and if he did not feel anxious to join the America party, a job would be found for him in France.
Chapman never signed the name Fritz, and indeed gave no receipts for the monthly payment of 12,000 francs. He signed the contract in the name of 'Edward Chapman".
Japanese Naval officers.
In July (42) Chapman saw three cars (Rolls-Royce or Mercedes-Benz) carrying some very high Japanese Naval Offcers in Nantes. Some high German officers were sitting with him and there was an escort of German cars.
The Dienststelle cars always used French papers, but carried German S.S. (Secret Service) cards in case of emergency.
While in Limoges, Chapman wore a uniform of a German marine, without epaulettes.
KV 2/456-2, page 39
KV 2/456-2, page 63
Backwell has handed to me this report on the visit he and Zigzag paid to be De Havilland works on the 30th December. Clearly, to be effective, the sabotage should be conducted on the three boiler houses that are marked on the sketch.
If, indeed, we are to sabotage these works we shall have to consider very carefully the camouflaging of these three objectives and possibly the demolition of one of them.
B.1.a. 3.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/456-2, page 69
Interrogation of Zigzag by Lord Rothschild (Mr. Fischer) on 2.1.43
(AOB, Lord Rothschild was mainly concerned with matters of sabotage)
Q. When did you first arrive at Nantes Dienststelle.
A. Nantes? Immediately after my release. About April I should imagine. I should imagine between 20th and the 30th.
Q. And then did you start training and that sort of thing in sabotage immediately.
A. I should think about 10 days afterwards I was trained in sabotage.
Q. Well what happened during the first ten days.
A. Well I was more or less introduced to the various people and things like that and I watched certain demonstrations by the man (Vosch) (phonetic) (AOB, real name Karl Barton) on sabotage.
Q. Was he the main instructor there.
A. He was the head of the sabotage, yes.
Q. He was a teacher.
A. He was a sort of foreman.
Q. A foreman?
Q. So during the first ten days, that would be about -
A. No, ten days afterwards.
Q. On the first ten days you sort of (both together)- so it was somewhere about the middle of May that you started with Vosch.
A. Probably the early part of May.
Q. Then did you just go on watching these demonstrations during May.
A. Yes. We didn't do very much during May. I think we did a few burning materials. And I don't think we mixed and dynamite during May - I think we used home made dynamite - factory made dynamite.
Q. Did you go away from Nantes in the month of May.
A. In the months of May, no I didn't do any sabotage funny business.
Q. You didn't visit Paris or Angers, or Berlin.
A. Paris - I did three visits before my visit to Berlin, but not connected with sabotage.
Q. I see.
KV 2/456-2,page 70
A. The only two things that were connected with sabotage were my visits in July and a later visit which I had in September.
Q. Visit to Berlin in July.
A. In July.
Q. Do you remember at all about when in July you went to Berlin.
Q. yes. In the middle, or in the beginning or the end.
A. No. Towards the end of July.
Q. Did you go with anybody.
A. Yes, I went with Thomas (Walter Praetorius).
Q. Towards the end. going back again for a minute; in June - in May you had these general lectures and things from Vosch (Karl Barton; KV 2/2461) - is Vosch the way it is pronounced by the way.
A. yes, Vosch. I don't know how it was spelt.
A. Vosch was the man who spoke - he had been in England.
Q. Yes. he was the chap who did a little work in England and in Paris wasn't he.
A. Yes. He is supposed to have done some of his cloakroom explosions I think. And I had an idea that he had some thing to do with a bridge something connected with a bridge in England. That's only my own idea, what I sort of and picked up from the conversation.
Q. So that was May; and then in June, what happened then, were you still experimenting with various types of material.
A. Yes, I was doing various burning mixtures. I had some explosions, I think by this time I had more or less lined the whole of my table.
Q. And when did they expect you - did they expect to send you earlier to England.
A. yes. The first day they expected, I was told my training would approximately take 3 months and then there was the question of getting me over, how they were going to get me here. There was quite a lot of dope to fix up about coming over-
Q. before the actual-
A. before I actually came over. I think I was given at least seven or eight days.
Q. So was your sabotage training finished really by the end of June.
KV 2/456-2, page 71
A. No, definitely not.
Q. It wasn't.
A. When it was decided I wasn't to come, we more or less carried on with old thing and I didn't actually finish my training, the end of the training consisting of 14-day fuses which they taught me and that sort of thing, training and demonstration of dynamiting trains, until September.
Q. I see.
A. But Vosch had explained it to me, but I never did the thing myself, although I knew about it.
Q. Then after - I suppose first of all one has to - of course you knew a certain amount about this business before didn't you. About explosives.
A. About explosives, yes. I had worked with explosives.
Q. But you first had to have explained to you sort of general principles, then to play with the things in the lab. or whatever it was-
A. We had a proper laboratory - well, mot a proper laboratory, but we had a room fixed up with all our mixtures in it.
Q. Sinks - did you have any, for washing things up.
A. Yes, it was just a room that had been the gardener's house. The gardener had been kicked out when the jerries came over, and this house was given to me. I was living in that department of the Dienststelle, and all my laboratory things, mixtures, were kept in jars and I was simply left on myself. When I wanted to mix myself a burning mixture I just went down.
Q. What about any larger scale explosives out in the open, when did you start. Did you ever do them.
A. Yes, we did quite a lot, in Nantes.
Q. You did. Do you remember at all which month you started doing them.
A. We did them the whole time - May and June, right up till I came I was sort of periodically doing burnings and and getting very good training about the method of using material and practice and-
Q. And then, so really there isn't very much one can pin on between April, May, June and July; there's no difference particularly, you were just going on with the same sort of training.
A. Yes. The only thing was the mixing of different burning materials. I sort of learnt one, and the next time I did the other.
Q. Did you take notes at all when you were doing it.
KV 2/456-2, page 72
A. Yes. I made notes of the formulas you see, they were rather difficult to remember at first - I couldn't sort of think of them. I made complete lists of everything I was doing. I was told not to, but I did. I kept that list right up till I was due to go, small things which I had heard, them discuss. Unfortunately just before I came over I was searched and any notes had to go too.
Q. They found the notes and took them away.
A. No, they didn't find them. I myself destroyed them.
Q. I see, yes. Before they searched you.
A. What happened was, just before I came over here, I had made quite a list of different things I thought would be of interest. Not a very large list, notes which I could recognise. And then Thomas (Praetorius), he was rather embarrassed about the whole business, he said, look, when we come back I am afraid I'll will have to go through a formula which is done with every German agent, and that is we're going to search you before you go. Its only to see if you have any ticket or French labels or anything which could possibly be recognised as coming from us. He he said, "you don't mind; "no, of course not", and so I had to get rid of them myself. It was rather lucky he told me. If he had come and searched me he would have definitely found the stuff.
Q. yes. And then it was towards the end of July that you first went to Berlin, with Thomas (Walter Praetorius).
A. Yes, with Thomas.
Q. Alone with him.
A. Yes, I went alone (with him).
Q. And you stayed about a week there did you.
A. I spent exactly seven days there.
Q. And then you came back again.
A. And then I came back to the Dienststelle (at Nantes).
Q. Did you come back with Thomas or alone.
A. I came back with Thomas.
Q. With Thomas, I see. And then got you to the first week in August.
A. Yes, approximately the first week of August.
Q. And you went on did you practising still in incendiary work. (AOB, in the meantime he also continued his W/T training)
A. Yes, when I came back we did fixing of link explosions and things like that.
Q. Yes, when you came back.
A. coupling explosions together.
KV 2/456-2, page 73
Q. And then in August and September, still doing those sort of experiments and so on.
A. Yes, I didn't do a great deal in August and September, I more or less knew the whole thing by them.
Q. Yes. Really I suppose-
A. My second trip actually wasn't connected with sabotage, it was to do with secret inks. When I got in Berlin you see, they gave me a sort of polish up.
Q. At the same place.
A. At the same place again.
Q. Can you remember the second time when you went to Berlin, when was it.
Q. End, beginning or middle.
A. I think the beginning of September - round the 10th I should imagine. I'm not quite sure of the date, but I think it was the beginning.
Q. Did you at any moment in your sabotage training have a final exam or have to give a demonstration to any people.
A. No. When I was there they showed me things you see-
Q. Where, at Nantes.
A. No, at Berlin.
Q. At Berlin, yes.
A. And then without giving me any hints or anything they said, now go out and do it. When I had done a certain explosion, they said, that's jolly good - they sort of passed me off like that you see. When people came to the Dienststelle, probably about three, maybe four, I was asked at various times to demonstrate things, just to show them that I knew.
Q. Yes, I see.
A. I don't know if it was just curiosity or whether these people actually wanted to see how I was doing.
Q. So really the sort of important sabotage training was till about the beginning of September, and then the rest was marking time or doing other things (such as improving his W/T training).
A. I think really I was quite proficient (capable) in sort of elementary things - I probably wasn't polished - at the time of my September ..1 word) .. I definitely knew - the whole time Vosch (Karl Barton) → (page 74)
KV 2/456-2, page 74
R.3. (R = recording 3?)
he had been training this group see, he told me things and when i went to the school at Berlin he was quite surprised at things I told him then which had been taught to me by the fellow there, and he was highly satisfied about it.
Q. Was the place near Berlin in any sort of grounds.
Q. Had it got a lake in it. Did you ever see a lake there.
A. No, I'am afraid I didn't. We had one at Nantes.
Q. But there was no lake in the grounds at Berlin.
Q. Was there a tower. A tower where they did some sort of experiments.
A. No. It was a very simple kind of stuckaway house.
Q. Had it got a wire fence round it as you went in, to stop people just strolling around inside.
A. Yes there was a wall running all around the place.
Q. Stone wall.
A. There was a stone wall on one or two sides.
Q. Did it have wire on it.
A. You mean barbed wire.
Q. Or any sort or wire fence, mixed up-
A. yes, on one half of the things as far as I can remember there was a wire fence round, with a sort of privet hedge running round it.
Q. Have you any idea where it was.
A. No, I am afraid not. I asked a gardener and Thomas (Walter Praetorius) said, well it is rather awkward at the present moment because if anyone realises you are British we should both be shot without any questions being asked. (AOB, I doubt this, nevertheless, some troubles might occur) So they asked if I wouldn't mind just staying quiet.
Q. Did any aeroplane fly over it.
A. I did see one or two flying over.
Q. Just ordinary, like you might see here.
A. Like you might see here, yes.
Q. I see.
A. No indications of which Air Force or anything.
Q. Was there a rifle range within the grounds where this place was.
KV 2/456-3, page 1
A. No, but I did do a little revolver practice.
A. Yes. There wasn't a specially prepared rifle range or anything like that.
Q. Were there pits for doing explosions.
A. No. There was a grass patch which we used, and after our explosions the whole thing was more or less extinct.
Q. It was towards the end of July, yes I see, the first time you arrived.
Q. Did you change on the way from Paris to Berlin at all. Change trains.
A. No, we kept the train-
Q. You went straight through to Berlin.
Q. And then you went from Berlin to this place.
A. Yes, we were met by car and then driven by car.
Q. Took about twenty minutes.
A. Yes, I should think approximately 25 minutes.
Q. You don't know what sort of time you arrived at the place itself.
A. In the morning.
Q. Did you arrive in the morning at the school near Berlin.
A. It was in the early hours of the morning I should think, shortly after midnight. I should think the time was probably between half past four and a quarter to two.
Q. In the morning (a.m.).
Q. I want to ask you - I want to leave the equipment for a few minutes, we'll come to that later - a little about the targets. You had some targets given to you in England didn't you, and one of them was De Havilland-
Q. Mosquito planes. And you were going to- what were you going to attack within the factory itself.
A. There was a discussion took place on that you see. First of all they showed me a photograph-
Q. An aerial photograph.
A. Yes. And it was thought that the most important part → (page 2)
KV 2/456-3, page 2
to attack, to do the most damage, would be the 'machine Raum'. By that I took them to mean the generators of the boiler house, because they gave a special demonstration of what damage could be caused by blowing boilers up.
Q. What did the call it -''Maschinenraum'?
Q. Yes, I see.
Q. And they show you on these aerial photograph where those two were likely to be.
A. The machine room was marked and as far I got it it was behind the main mounting hall. But when I saw the photographs shown me here I didn't recognise it from the photograph, I don't know whether that is because they have new buildings down there or the camouflage is very good.
Q. It might just a different angle on the photograph.
A. Probably it was the angle, but I found it very confusing to pickout. I could pick out the main offices, I couldn't pick out the separate buildings.
Q. Anyway one of the things was the boiler.
A. Steam boiler - or we'll presume it was a steam boiler.
Q. And how were you going to deal with them.
A. To deal with them? Well that was more or less left to me. You see, they couldn't tell me what I would encounter when I got down there. They were rather relying on my own initiative I think.
Q. Did they know how many boilers there were there.
A. No they didn't. They said, when you get down there you'll probably be able to find out those things yourself.
Q. But you were to do it with high explosive, the boilers. ..these xxxxx high explosive, and If possible with → (page 3)
KV 2/456-3, page 3
Q. As well? How was the burning material going to-
A. Well, I think they relied on the force of the explosion to probably carry the burning material to various parts of the building.
Q. Where were you supposed to put the explosive.
A. Well the suggestion was if there were three linked boilers I should put it on the middle one.
Q. On top.
A. On top.
Q. How much.
A. Well, they said as much as I could possibly get, to put on top, but the charge I think was reckoned at about 17 kilo, ten to 15 kilo.
Q. With a delay.
A. Yes, with a time clock. Using a delay, well past the hour I would take to get away - I had to reckon that out myself.
Q. Did they think there might be any difficulty in getting in to the factory, people patrolling on the outside.
Q. But they relied on you to be able to work that.
A. Well we had a sort of practice of that sort of thing, attacking - well, not attacking, but trying to plant something in a factory - quite near us.
Q. At Nantes.
A. Yes - no, it was Leo and I who went out - Karl Barton alias Herman Vosch was there at the time.
Q. And we were working at night in the factory you tried it on.
A. Yes, and they had German sentries round. The idea was that we were to try and see if it was possible to get past the German sentries. It was rather a strange thing, there have been quite a lot people hurt or a coincidentally shot by the German sentries who have been quite innocent people; so the Germans have brought a new order out and that is that they mustn't shoot until they get permission. First of all the German sentry, he had a telephone in his box, he must ring up and ask the Commandant, saym there are men attacking this place, is it all right to shoot.
Q. By which time there's nothing there.
A. Oh, we didn't find much difficulties there.
KV 2/456-3, page 4
Q. Just walked through the front gate did you, or what.
A. No, we climbed over some barbed wire and dropped over the wall.
Q. Did you have any teaching in getting over barbed wire.
A. Oh, I've had quite a lot of experience in that myself.
Q. I see. How do you get through it, what is the principle!
A. ...(3 words) to climb.
Q. You don't put a sort of cushion (pillow) or sack over it.
A. We didn't in this because they had these sort of iron staples jutting out. The barbed wire was twined round the staples. If you get a grip in between the barbed wire you can sort of haul yourself up and jump off the other side, and the same thing applies coming back.
Q. As regards getting into De Havilland's Mosquito factory, they were going to leave that to you, how to do it.
A. How to do that was definitely left to me.
Q. You weren't to take employment were you.
A. No, definitely not.
Q. And you were to put this charge of high explosive on to of the boiler or-
A. It was suggested that it there were three boilers I should put it on top.
Q. On the top.
A. Yes, Sort of climb up and lay the charge on top you see, preferably on the middle one, and they said that the explosion of the middle boiler would explode the other two.
Q. And what delay were you going to leave on it.
A. Well there again, it was to allow me a margin of safety.
Q. Just to get out.
A. Just to get out.
Q. Quite a short one - well half an hour or so.
A. I'd probably reckon the time ...(1 word)... and probably allowed myself an hour I should think, in order to make quite certain I got out.
Q. And you were just going to lay the explosive on the top.
A. Well, preferably try and pack it under something to get the sort of force of the explosion downwards.
Q. Was it going to be camouflaged in any way.
KV 2/456-3, page 5
A. No, they reckoned it it was put on top during the night-
Q. No one would see it.
A. No one would notice it.
Q. You were going to bring it in the attaché case or-
A. Yes. Make it up in an attaché case, climb up the ladder and place it on the top ...(both together)... just chance it whether the chap came out.
Q. But there are people aren't there hanging about in boiler houses, I mean-
A. There are-
Q. In war time.
A. But when its dark and the boilers are in a shadow its quite possible if a man saw an attaché case lying about on the ground, he'd become suspicious and want to know what's in the attaché casem but I think there's a fair chance when you put the charge on top that the man will come round the other side and not bother to look up.
(R.5.) (sound recording 5)
Q. Yes. Did you discuss it rather in the way we are discussing it now with them (the Germans too). I mean was that the way you talked it over with them.
A. Yes, I mean I've had quite a little experience of getting into places- (Chapman had an extensive career in burglary and safe-cracking in England)
Q. They left that to your own ingenuity.
A. I mean, they couldn't advice me on that without seeing the definite buildings round De Havilland's.
Q. And then you had another target didn't you, the Weybridge Airscrew Works.
Q. Did they show you any photograph of that.
A. Yes, they showed me aerial photographs of that too.
Q. What did they want you to attack there.
A. Especially the stores of wood. They said the (air) screws for the propeller were made of special type of wood which was very difficult to obtain and if I could set fire to the wood stores-
Q. Yes. And that I suppose would be done purely with an incendiary burning mixture.
A. Well usually they link them both up. Put the explosive and blast the burning material round the factory.
Q. Sometimes when high explosive goes off, doesn't it sometimes put the burning material out unless one is careful.
A. I does, yes, but I think once you set it a light your burning material is fairly well slight.
KV 2/456-3, page 6
Q. You did make experiments of that type did you.
Q. Spreading out (both together) with the high explosive.
Q. How important was the Weybridge Airscrew Works - was it less important than the Mosquitoes?
A. Well it was regarded - that was my main target.
A. No, Weybridge. That was the first place suggested. But later it was cancelled and they told me they didn't want this thing done, why I don't know. They said ,y main target was the De Havilland Mosquito.
Q. I see. Then you also had sugar refineries didn't you.
A. Sugar refineries and rubber.
Q. Did the give you the names of the sugar refineries.
A. No. They just said any sugar refineries or rubber depots I could find would be a sort of welcome addition.
Q. And how were you to deal with sugar refineries.
A. With burning materials.
Q. Just to set stores on fire was it.
Q. The same with rubber.
A. Yes. I think the mixture they told me to use was aluminium and permanganate and if possible try and mix rubber up in it, because apparently rubber burns very well.
Q. Yes, it burn quite nicely. Then were those the only three targets you had in England - four targets.
A. Four targets, yes. They told me, naturally they said, we can't put ourselves in the British Isles, when you are over there, and if there is anything you think can be done, send us a message by Dadeda (morse K) and we will see what can be done. And if I think it is worth doing we'll give you the OK.
Q. But did you have any training in other targets.
A. In other targets, no.
Q. You didn't have any training on railway lines.
A. Oh, I had training, yes.
Q. So you were taught in other thins - what things were you taught - what sort of targets were you given.
AOB: I suppose this summary is enough, as it goes on and on for quite a while.
KV 2/456-4, page 42 (minute 92c)
Yesterday evening, after the transmission at 1700 hrs., I discussed with Zigzag our proposals for his return to France.
I said that we had considered his case very carefully and had decided to return with be both unwise and dangerous for him to return with any companions or to contact any agents in the occupied countries, but that our proposal was ???that he should, on his return, make an attempt to join the saboteurs who were going to America so that we should be able to capture them there without difficulty. Zigzag replied immediately by saying that he might as well be quite frank about it; that he would not do this as he had another more personal matter to conduct on his return and that this would take place in Berlin. I told him that I thought it would be better if his activities were coordinated with British strategy and that any individual enterprise on his part, no matter how commendable, would probably be less satisfactory than our suggestions. He said that as we were not aware of his plans we were hardly in a position to judge. I said ?? thought it advisable for him to tell us exactly what he proposed to do. He stated quite definitely that he was not prepared to reveal what he wished to attempt, as it would be considered an absurd and impossible mission, and that as he could be the sole judge of whether he could pull it off or not he thought it would be best to keep it to himself. nevertheless, after some considerable time and by the exercise of a great amount of patience and sympathy for his viewpoint, Zigzag agreed to tell me what his "'personal" mission was.
He said that during his stay in France Dr. Graumann had given him many promises, all of which had been kept, and that a number of other promises had been made to him which, he felt sure, would also be fulfilled on his return. According to Zigzag, Graumann now believed that Zigzag was considerable pro-Nazi as he had always "Heil Hitler" in the presence of groups of people and had expressed great admiration for Hitler as a man and for the Nazi philosophy. Zigzag had always listened with rapt (absorbed) attention to Hitler's → (page 43)
KV 2/456-4, page 43
speeches on the radio and had said that he would be tremendously pleased to be present at one of the gatherings where Hitler spoke. Graumann had seemed to be taken by this suggestion and had promised Zigzag that he would arrange for him to be present at one of these meetings in Berlin and that he would get him a good seat "in the first or second row", even if it meant dressing him in a uniform of a high official. Zigzag firmly believes that Graumann will keep this promise and, as he was to report in Berlin upon his return, he says that he will press Graumann for this opportunity and then he will be able to assassinate Hitler. Zigzag is not yet clear as to the means he will adopt in doing this but, with his extensive knowledge of explosives and incendiary material, believes that it will be possible for it to be arranged.
I did not decry (criticise) Zigzag's proposal, but I suggested to him that this was far more difficult thing to do than he seemed to believe and said that it would, of course, mean the immediate liquidation of Zigzag. he relied by saying, "Ah! But what a way out".
When describing his criminal experiences Zigzag always played on the amount of publicity which he has obtained in the daily press and has always been very proud of this. he believes that he is now a man without a country who cannot come back to Great Britain and lead a normal life, firstly because his past would make it impossible and secondly because he does not want to, and yet he realises that his future in the occupied countries would always be extremely uncertain. Furthermore, I believe that he has a considerable amount of loyalty towards Great Britain and these sentiments all serve to make him want to take "the big way out". he can think of no better way of leaving this life than by obtaining world press reports and a place in the pages of history.
Zigzag said that he did not know what he would do if he found his "assassination" plan impossible, and I told him that I thought he should have an alternative plan prepared. As he was such a useful man to the British Intelligence and valuable to the country's war effort we should consider an → (page 44)
KV 2/456-4, page 44
alternative which he could take up if he found what he could not carry out his original project and I told him that I still thought that the suggestion that he should go with the American saboteurs to the united States was the best one. Later Zigzag countered this by saying that he was prepared to let us have full information about this American party but that he thought he could be even greater value by working in one or three places to which the Germans had promised him he should go on his return:-
1. A job in Berlin at headquarters where, if necessary, he could sabotage the Dienststelle.
2. In Paris, where he could obtain a great deal of information and possibly still carry out sabotage.
3. At Angers, as the head of the department there had seemed very keen on having Zigzag to work for the organisation.
I said that we would consider his suggestions.
I told Zigzag that we would let him have money he had brought with him next week and that he could dispose of it as he wished, so long as we were sure that he did not compromise him in this country in any way. He immediately that he wished the money to go towards taking care of Freda White's baby. I explained to him that we had not yet traced Freda White and the baby but that enquiries were going forward and I should have some news of them by the middle of next week. I felt that it was far better that we should know the exact situation concerning them before Zigzag visited them rather than that he should go and run his neck into what might be an extremely awkward situation.
We also discussed the code which Zigzag could use in his ham-chat while he was transmitting during practice from France and asked it it would be possible for him to instruct his brother (now in the Army) in Morse code so that he could listen for Zigzag when he was transmitting from the other side. I said that I did ot consider this a very good suggestion as his brother would be quite raw to radio operating and obviously would not be competent to deal → (page 45)
KV 2/456-4, page 45
with his messages as an operator who had had many years of practise. He, personally, would realise that in six weeks or two months one could not possibly learn as much about radio as someone who had operated for a number of years. Zigzag said that his only reason for asking this was that he would feel a far greater degree of confidence in the people listening to him over here if his own brother was amongst them, but that he was prepared to withdraw his suggestion if we consider it unsatisfactory.
We agreed that it was nearly time for us to start on the preparation of Zigzag's cover story, and I suggested that his ideas on this subject would be extremely valuable, I thought that it might be advisable to rough rough out the bare skeleton of his proposals and that these could probably be amplified next week. He then suggested the following, and his story on return to France would run something like this:-
"I landed quite safely and after burying most of the apparatus I took the transmitter and caught a train to a station in the north of London. There I phoned the Hoboe Club in Rupert Street to try and contact my old friend Jimmy Hunt. He was not there so I tried the Working Man's Club in Hammersmith, another of the places which I knew he frequented. It was successful there and after some initial surprise Jimmy told me to go and meet him at his flat in West London, where he was living with a young woman. I went there and told Jimmy pretty well the whole story and said that I could guarantee a considerable amount of money if Jimmy would throw his lot in with me, and to know during my criminal days, who were Freddy Sampson and Tommy Lay. We agreed on this and Jimmy took a house in Letchmore heath for me, where I used to live, only going out for short periods at night. Jimmy made all the arrangements for my living and about a fortnight (two weeks) after my arrival we went to the De Havillands and surveyed the ground. We considered it would be possible to sabotage the three boiler houses there and Freddie Sampson and Tommy Lay should take outlying plants while I should attempt the main power station. Jimmy managed to obtain all the material necessary to do this, and the factory was effectively sabotaged on the night of ... Unfortunately Freddie Sampson was caught and gave away → (page 46)
KV 2/456-4, page 46
my name and the Police set up a hue (description) and cry for me. It was far too dangerous to continuing transmitting, as they were watching all my former friends and the places where they were living, so I had to leave the country immediately and here I am".
I though this story was quite a good idea, but it was dependent upon whether the people he had suggested were at the moment out of prison and whether they could reasonably have been supposed to have been available, and I said that I (Mr. R.T. Reed of M.I.5) would make enquiries to see whether this was so.
I must point out that this is just an idea for a story on his part and we did not decide that it would be the final one by any means.
In passing I asked Zigzag how he would explain his appearance in this country to Freda White, and he said that he could say that the Police had decided to drop the charges that were outstanding against him as he had escaped from Jersey and was now about to join the Army and be drafted overseas. This would explain his appearance in civilian clothes and his subsequent disappearance.
B.1.a. (M.I.5) 2.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/456-6, page 4 (minute 85p)
Colonel Stanford tells me that the latest P.R.U.'s over De Havillands at Hatfield were probably between the beginning and middle of September (1942) of this year. The plane did not directly go over the works, but from the route which which was taken it would have been possible to obtain photographs without very much difficulty. No reconnaissance have been made since that date, so that any modifications to the works which have occurred since September should be unknown to the enemy.
B.1.a. 29.12.42 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/457-1, page 1
Chapman Edward Arnold
alias Zigzag (Zig-Zag)
KV 2/457-1, page 18 (minute 146b)
On Monday afternoon I took Mrs. Barton to Hendon so that she could start giving German lessons to Zigzag. She spent about an hour with him and told him that she was German/Swiss.
He seemed pleased with the instruction that she gave him, and Mrs. Barton reports that his german is fluent and satisfactory, but that Zigzag wishes to know technical expressions and the equivalent in English for the German names of sabotage materials. I am taking Mr. Barton to Hendon again today, and I am also taking four volumes of Muret Saunders dictionary. Do you know ant books of technical expressions which would be more satisfactory than this, and if so have anything in your possession which I could take to Zigzag.
AOB: thus at that moment Zigzag stayed in Hendon.
B.1.a. 21.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/457-1, page 20
D.3 (Group Captain Archer).
I should be most grateful if you would arrange for our agent Zigzag to visit the De Havilland works at Hatfield to inspect the sub-station there and the building by the side of the swimming pool which has been selected by Colonel Turner for our sabotage plans.
It would not be necessary for Zigzag to see any other parts of the factory, but quite obviously he should have a good knowledge of the location of his notional objects. If you will suggest a time and day I will make the necessary arrangements for transport.
B.1.a. 21.1 43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/457-1, page 23 (minute 145c)
Arrangements for shipping a civilian as seaman to Lisbon.
Mr. Marriott asked Mr. Jones, if it would be possible for a man aged 28, without papers or seaman going experience, to be shipped to Lisbon under a false name of a crew, with the object of deserting on arrival there. The man would have our (M.I.5) help as regards papers etc., until he left this country. The whole proceeding to be carried out in such a way as to act undue attention, and to inform as few people as possible.
Mr. Wilkie was consulted and considered it could probably be done, provided the man could look and behave like a seaman. A week or two of 'working by', i.e. helping on a ship which was in dock, would help the man to get the right atmosphere. It should first be settled whether he was to go as a Seaman or as a Catering Rating. Captain Shepherd of Ellermann, Papayanni could be approached to arrange a berth in a ship, but ought to be fore-warned if desertion was part of the plan, as this would leave the ship shorthanded. (? also liable to a fine).
Mr. Wright of the Shipping Federation was seen by Mr. Jones and Mr. Elton, and thought the safest method would be to provide the false papers in London and then send the man to join a ship in Liverpool. No query as to papers ought then to arise in Liverpool. Mr. Wright himself would supply blanks of the necessary Pool Form (C.R.S.4.), for "entry from Shore Employment".
The Mercantile Marine Office in Dock Street was then visited (present, Messrs. Simpson, Jeffries, Hanna and Perkins, all of whom constantly work together in the same office, so that it is difficult to conduct confidential business with only one of them). A hypothetical case was put, and they took a great deal of trouble to think out the best procedure. It was decided that the following would be the system:-
KV 2/457-1, page 24
1) Dis. A and B.S.1C. Blank copies, serial-numbered, to be obtained by us from R.G. and completed with photos etc., then embossed stamp added at the London Mercantile Marine Office, without our revealing the name on the papers.
2) Armed Forces registration. The form to be obtaining by us. (B.1.a. has facilities for getting the Civilian documents).
3) N.U.S. (Union membership) Card and National Insurance Cards to be obtained by the man himself, stating that his previous employment was not insurable.
Mr. Jeffries said a Pier-head have been far simpler until quite lately, when standby Pools had made it less workable. Even now it could still be done at Eastham Locks, but if a plan depended on it the result could not be absolutely be guaranteed. The scheme would be for a ship, bound from Manchester to the desired port abroad, to be deprived (by pre-arrangement) of one of the crew before reaching the Mersey. The man to be shipped would be waiting about Eastham Lock, where the Ship Canal enters the Mersey and signed on at the last minute, there being no time to apply to the stand-by Pool at Liverpool. In such cases, men might not have any papers at all. Mr. Jeffries added that it was now unusual and noticeable for a men of 28 to join the Merchant Navy for his first voyage, from shore employment: since most men now came from training schools.
B.1.L. 20.1.43 L.S. Elton
AOB: might B.1.'L'. pointing at the 'L' of L.S. Elton?
KV 2/457-1, page 36 (minute 144a)
(AOB, quite exceptional that the CX serial number has not been deleted, as was M.I.6 (SIS or SOE) common practice.
The 12xxx serial was when Germany was involved common.
VX was explaining the according officer in charge)
My dear Robertson (TAR),
Reference your PF 65101/B.1.a. of 11.1.43
I beg to inform you that my Chief has considered your proposition, and authorised me to say that he sees no objection to Zigzag's return to the Germans via Portugal.
F. Foley (AOB, whom by the way, often was concerned with Portugal matters on behalf of S.I.S.)
KV 2/457-1, page 39 (minute 143b)
Finney rang up on 18.1.43 and wished to give you some more information about Nightcap (the cover-name for the future endeavour dropping of what appeared to be Chapman). he had been visiting No. 12 Fighter Group and had ascertained that six fighters chased the 'plane. One of them got into range, when unfortunately the instruments of the 'plane packed yp for no understandable reason.
Having regard to what we were told about the 'plane seems to Finney important, and he thinks that the matter ought to be taken up with the Air Ministry on a high level on the technical side.
B.1.a. 18.1.43 Sgd. J.C. Masterman
KV 2/457-1, page 54 (minute 136b)
Colonel Turner came to the office this morning to discuss with Mr. Marriott, Major Masterman and myself (Mr. R.T. Reed) his propositions for sabotaging the De Havilland works.
He proposed that the small sub-station containing four Mains transformers should be camouflaged so as to appear as if two of these transformers had been blown up, and that the building next to the swimming pool, which we had selected on the 13th, should be camouflaged also as if a further large sub-station had been erected inside it.
Colonel Turner said he would erect what would appear to be iron railings around this second building, so that Zigzag should say he had to get through these in order to approach this second sub-station. It would be necessary to have such railings, as he was given to understand that these transformers were dangerous and had to be railed off from the public.
Colonel Turner's photographic experts had produced a large photograph of each of the proposed sites, and it was agreed that these photographs should be shown to Zigzag so that he will fully understand the site and location of the objectives we have chosen even if we are not able to arrange for him to see them personally. It was proposed that the sabotage should be conducted on a night when the moon will rise at about 1900 hrs, so that the explosive charges could notionally be placed in position in darkness and the camouflage erected in the moonlight. This would go up overnight, and Colonel Turner said that he would require at least three or four days notice, We arranged that we should try and give him at least one week's notice before the final operation should be completed.
B.1.a. 16.1.43 Sgd. Mr. R.T. Reed
KV 2/457-1, page 57 + 58 (minute 136b)
(Q100) ↓↓↓↓ (Q100return)
One of the sheds at the De Havilland premises
(S100) ↓↓↓↓ (S100return) (T101) ↓↓↓↓ (T101return)
The Mains transformers noticed on page 56 (minute 136b)
KV 2/457-1, page 61
Copy to Mr. Milmo,
I interrogated Zigzag on his statement which he made when he first arrived, but which he has not repeated since, that he thought his parachute drop in this country might have been a trap.
Zigzag told me that when Dr. Graumann was arranging for the parachute drop at night after his flight from Nantes to Paris he had been told to bury his parachute and equipment exactly the same way that he would do if he were being dropped in this country, for they might try to catch him later on by pretending he was going to be dropped in France. This statement was made in a joking manner, but as Zigzag (Chapman) was intending to double-cross the Germans he thought it wise to pay careful attention to what Graumann had told him and not to dismiss this suggestion.
B.1.a. 16.1.43. Sgd. Mr. R.T. Reed.
KV 2/457-1, page 62 (minute 133b)
I had a session with Zigzag yesterday evening from 22.45 hours to 02.45 hours, during which the conversation was very serious and intimate. Much of our talk was in French, a language which Zigzag has difficulty in expressing himself but which tends to break down his natural reserve and to lead him to express his innermost thoughts.
I propose to give the gist of our conversation at length as it will help you to make an appreciation of his character, but I can summarise my impressions in the following:-
As we had expected, Zigzag had only elementary education during the years of depression. His childhood was probably hard and always over-shadowed by lack of money, hence his life has been directed to material things, especially the acquisition of money.
He drifted into crime through a series of social accidents, and through this came supremely egotistical. During the last three years he has discovered thought, H.G. Wells, literature, altruistic motives and beauty, and he has realised the handicap of poor education and the effects which lack of education can have on a man's life. He is endeavouring, perhaps for the first time, to understand himself and the meaning of life. Although he does not regret his past life he feels that he has no place in society and is very little use. It would be better if he dies - but not needlessly. he wishes to make retribution for the bad things he has done. It can be gathered from the manner in which he talks of his life that he regards it as finished, although this latter may be self-dramatisation as he was at times tending to review his life as a published story.
B.1.a. 15.1.43 Sgd. L.C. Marshall.
KV 2/457-1, page 70 (minute 133b cont.)
1. Zigzag realises that he has an impatient character but cannot control his impatience. He wishes us to take action which he is unable him to get on with his job of doing something concrete. Although I (L.C. Marshall) I tried to prove to him that operational action would be taken on the information he has provided he cannot be satisfied that he has done anything of value unless he actually performs some concrete action himself.
2. He still whished to take someone with him and only one person will satisfy him, Jimmy Hunt, but he still would like to have contacts with other of our agents in France, so that if he found immediate operational objective he could take proper action. He asked me my candid and honest opinion on this question of having someone with him. I agreed with him that it would, in some respects, be advantageous, but that with my knowledge of intelligence methods I should steadfastly refuse to have anyone working with me or knowing me, as some small and unforeseen incident could cause me or my companion to betray our true mission. I illustrated this with a story told me by Hooper.
3. Zigzag said that he was not only engaged on this intelligence work but he was also fighting against himself. He had always been an egoist and acted for himself and had done what he wanted to. Now he had realised that he must consider other people and things he was finding it very difficult. He did not know which was most important, one's private life or one's country. he also said that very often since he had been at Hendon (I suppose where he currently lived) he had considered climbing out of the window and going to see friends, and had often been on a point of doing it but had stopped himself, realising that it was not in the interest of his work or of his companions. On Wednesday evening, when he → (page 71)
KV 2/457-1, page 71
escorted a girl to Hendon central Station he had almost decided to spend the night with her and to return the following morning as she has more or less invited him to go home with her, but at the last moment he had returned to the house, leaving the girl at the station. H e asked me whether I considered that personal life was more important one's country or ideals and we had a long discussion on this point. He said that when he got back to France he would think the matter out more clearly.
4. I asked him how he came to take up his criminal life. He had evidently been thinking over his criminal life storyand attempting to put it for him and decide
in some biographical sequence and to give it appeal. His story briefly is this:-
He was educated at an elementary school and, at the age of 16, went into a Sunderland engineering firm. where at first he received no pay whatsoever. He worked from 7.30 in the morning until 5.30 at night and cycled four miles to and from his work. After about a year he received an increase in pay of 2/- per week. During the depression in 1930 the works, were closed down and he had the option of taking the dole of 5/- a week, which would have meant his attending what was known as the 'dole school'. He was determined not to do this, much against the wishes of his parents who were badly in need of any money he could earn, as his father was unemployed and his mother was ill. he seems to have had a row with his father, and he went off to a recruiting office and joined the Coldstream Guards. From what he says he was apparently under age, but managed to get away with it. He went to the Guards Depot at Caterham and he was granted his first leave after about nine-months. He had been saving up 5/- per weeks out of his pay, and went on leave he said he had what to him was a colossal sum of money, about £4. London had a great fascination → (page 72)
KV 2/457-1, page 72
for him and he decided to spend his week's leave there. He said that he soon learned the Guardsman's run', i.e. Hyde Park, Marble Arch and Oxford Street, and he went about with Guardsmen considerably older than himself. With one of them he met a prostitute and although he never up to this time associated with women, he put on a show of bravo and evidently spent the night with her. He was extremely embarrassed.
However, he spent the rest of his leave with her and when it was time for him to return to duty she apparently persuaded him to stay another night and he, of course, stayed two months until he was picked up and eventually given 84 days detention (this all took place in 1933) and his discharge from the army.
When he left detention prison he came to London and met another prostitute which whom he says he was in love. he lived with her for some time, but one evening she came home with two men and asked him to sleep in another room. This so shocked and revolted him that he went straight out of the house to a public house, with only 4/- in his pocket, and started drinking. He met there an Australian about his age, i.e. 18, who was also broke but who who had a small flat which he invited Zigzag (Chapman) to share with him. With the help of this Australian Chapman (Zigzag) got employment for three days doing crowd work at a film studio, and earned £3. IN this they threw a party at the flat, and apparently the party was wild and some damage was done to the flat. They left the place owing a week's rent. The owner of the flat took out a summons against them, giving, so Chapman (Zigzag) says, a description of him, and, at the same time, the prostitute with whom he had been living was very upset at his leaving her and in order to pay him out had trumped up a charge that he had stolen a gramophone from her.
He said he must have been very naive in those days, because he was sitting in a cafe when two police officers came in and asked the proprietor if he knew Chapman (Zigzag). Chapman (Zigzag) got up and said 'that's me', whereupon they took him him in charge, and he says he was given six months. (It seems to me to be a very heavy → (page 73)
KV 2/457-1, page 73
sentence for the crimes he had committed).
Whilst in the prison he met Jimmy Hunt, Tommy Lay (two later good friends) and one or two other, and thus joined the mob with whom he worked and is still working. he said that the first jobs were rather terrifying, but that after that there was always a thrill and he had enjoyed his life in the crime.
5. We then talked about (future) education. He said that he now realised it had proved to be to him. He thought the English system was very bad in that children were given only very elementary instruction and were crammed with heroic stories about the superior of the British race and Empire, and were told nothing about other peoples and races, whom children, if they thought of them at all, thought of as a lesser peoples not worth considering. In the last year he had met French and German people and had found them equally, if not more, cultured than Englishmen, every with as good physically, and very often, in the case of the Germans much better physical specimens. These and other discoveries had rather shaken any faith he might have had in the British social system.
When he first came south with the Coldstream Guards he said that he was a very raw north country (born in the vicinity of Newcastle) lad, with a very broad north country accent. He has worked hard to learn French and German and has acquired a taste for poetry and an interest in music. (As we know, he now has quite a refined manner of speaking and I think that it is to be admired that a man of his background and character should have acquired even the rudimentary culture which he has. I have already remarked to you that I feel that some of the hesitance in his replies to questions is due to his endeavour always to speak ungrammatical. Whilst with me he has several times made mistakes and quickly covered them up. When he considers his words he speaks very good English, and it is to be → (page 74)
KV 2/457-1, page 74
noticed in the letters which he writes to us that they were coached in fairly educated terms, although they are occasionally spelling mistakes and the character of the writing is that of a person of elementary education.)
During this conversation on education he grew rather lyrical about the beauty of the river near Nantes (Loire estuary), and said that it was only since his stay in Jersey that he had begun to realise how much beauty there was in the world. The river at Nantes has made a great impression on him.
6. He said that he had been trying to find out for himself what he was the real purpose in life, and after some groping (investigative) endeavours to give his ideas he asked me whether I believed in evolution and what I thought was the purpose of life. Briefly I said that I believed that man was climbing to some high destiny, that he had struggled from his ape-like existence to his present state of civilisation, which was not good, but that he was gradually climbing and that it was the duty of everyone of us to help man onwards in his ascent, but this did not necessarily mean that we had to be 'goody-goody' (self-satisfied). War was a bestiality which set man back a thousand years.
Chapman (Zigzag) said that this was almost exactly what H.G. Wells stated. He was greatly impressed by H.G. Wells and thought that he was one of the greatest men of his age. Wells went so far to advocate the annihilation of certain types of mankind, and he had suggested that all the jitter-bugs should be segregated in a beautiful dance hall where where they could dance to continuous jitter-bug music till they died, but they should, of course, be first sterilised so then they could not perpetuate (preserve) themselves. In this respect Hitler was making use of some of the doctrine of H.G. Wells. he too was trying to raise the level of → (page 75)
KV 2/457-1, page 75
mankind. He had forbidden jitter-bugging (this might be, but among youngsters there were quite many who favoured Jazz music) in Germany and also advocated sterilisation and the annihilation of certain types. Hitler too was a working-class man who was striving to the benefit the working-class people.
Naturally I encountered this with the argument that Hitler was only striving the
raise the status of the German people and to enslave all other peoples, but I
think this had little effect. Chapman (Zigzag)
does not like the Nazi system, he has seen too much brutality and horror, has
seen the cowed French population, and does know something of the brutality of
Gestapo (S.D. forces; as
Gestapo's jurisdiction was restricted to German territories only)
questionings, but I think he still wonders if such horrors may not be necessary
in order to cleanse the human race, as some of his German friends, who, at any
rate to him, were very decent ordinary men, told him that they themselves were
horrified by some of the brutalities of the Nazi system, but that, nevertheless,
the excesses were necessary if the system were to continue.
One of the horrors which had most impressed itself on Chapman's (Zigzag's) mind happened very soon after his incarceration (imprisonment) in Romanville. Apparently one day a German guards came in and questioned each of the prisoners, and then brutally called sixteen of them outside. The sixteen men were matched about 300 metres away and then shot one by one. Zigzag did not see the actual shooting but he saw the men going forward and heard the sound of of the shots. After this he said that the Germans were swine and that only they could act in such a way.
We discussed this subject of the purpose of life, mentioning socialism and patriotism. Chapman (Zigzag) had discovered many faults in the present capitalist system rather as if he had never heard of them before and as it they were things which I had not realised. It rather seemed as if he had come on these things for the first time and thought them, as indeed they are to a → (KV 2/457-1, page 1)
KV 2/457-2, page 1
man who has never known them, great discoveries.
I asked him what his personal part he proposed to play in helping man in his struggle. He replied that he could do nothing, as throughout his life he had committed offences against society (not that he regretted them), that he was so selfish and so unused to thinking of others that he could not adjust himself to normal society of which he had recently had a little experience and of which he was realising the benefits. His life was of little value and it would be better for him to die - not to throw his life away needlessly, but to do something by which he could make some retribution (payback) an answer given in the Brain Trust to a question: 'What would you do if you only had four months to live?'. The answer had been given that the speaker would not change his mode of life because that would be* a failure. The speaker would enjoy his life during the four months as much as possible, but would endeavour to make amends for any wrongs he had committed. This seemed to Chapman (Zigzag) to be an admirable philosophy.
I suggested to Chapman (Zigzag) that that this was a coward's way out, and an admission of defeat if he died, or caused himself to die, now. He was now a thinking man, who realised that the present system must be changed and that man must progress, and that therefore he should play his part making that progress possible. He replied that he could not possibly adjust himself to normal society, but I said that after the war many men would be in a similar position to himself, especially the young pilots of the fighters and bombers, who had known no ordinary life between leaving school and flying in the air at great speed, destroying and killing. These men would find adjustment to ordinary peace-time conditions even harder that Zigzag would. He had also said that he had asked Tooth to look after his little daughter and that he had given Tooth instructions, one of them being that at the age of 16 she should be given H.G. Wells to read. I suggested that it would → (page 2)
* an admission that life up to the moment had been
KV 2/457-2, page 2
be much better if he himself supervised his daughter's education, but he replied that he did not wish her to know of his existence, he would only handicap her and cause her pain and trouble. In any case, he could not live in England again, although he suggested that he might be able to come back under a false name.
During all this conversation he spoke as if he were already convinced that he would soon be dead, and he often spoke of himself in the past tense.
It is difficult to commit our conversation to paper, as Chapman (Zigzag) was struggling much of the time to express himself, both in French and English, and it is impossible to give the nuance and changes of expression but I had the impression, as I have before stated, of an uneducated and violent man finding education and struggling to understand life, but still governed by his early life and education. As in most cases of his nature he was seeing himself as a biography on the book-stall, and was tending to dramatise. As is the case with nearly all writers when they first begin to create the tendency was to be sad and self-commiserating.
B.1.a. 16.1.43 Sgd. L.C. Marshall
KV 2/457-2, page 12 (minute 130b)
15th January, 1943
I enclose a set of photographs of sabotage equipment found in the possession of a German saboteur (Chapman / Zigzag).
I should be very grateful if you would let me know whether this equipment is likely to be of S.O.E. origin. On internal grounds there is reason to think that it is some of our Department's stuff. (AOB, S.O.E. dropped so much sabotage gear as to support the French Résistance, that we may consider about 40% felt in German hands. And was favourably used by them, also for practical reasons, because it performed sound)
KV 2/457-2, pages 7, 9 and 11
Two examples of the detonator parts Chapman (Fritzchen) carried with him when he was dropped and landed on British soil
A bunch of electrical detonators, which were brought in by Chapman (Fritzchen); British cover-name before he landed by parachute, and the first early hours, was Nightcap - all these devices were, however, British made on behalf of S.O.E.
KV 2/457-2, page 32 minute 126d or a
B.1.a. (Major Robertson, Mr. Reed)
I had a discussion yesterday afternoon with Jones and Elton about the possibility of fitting up Chapman (Zigzag) with seaman's papers. I explained that our requirements were as follows.
1. The getting of the papers and his subsequent joining of a ship must be capable of having been done by Chapman (Zigzag) himself, or by some friend of his acting on his behalf.
2. Chapman (Zigzag) must be supplied with a complete and coherent account of how he managed the affair.
3. Chapman (Zigzag) must be in a position to go ashore in Lisbon lawfully.
The third condition rules out any possibility of Chapman (Zigzag) being put on board a ship as a stowaway. Even if, by collusion with every interested British party, we get him to Lisbon as a stowaway he would either have to be delivered up to the International Police for custody until the ship's homeward journey, or he would have to jump the ship immediately on its arrival, in which case the ship would be liable to a fine of £600 and Chapman (Zigzag) would have all the Police on his trail.
With regard to fitting him out with documents, this is a complicated business, and will in fact have to be started at least three weeks before the date upon which we want him to sail. The period will also cover the getting of a suitable ship. I have therefore instructed Jones to get to work at once. The story will probably be as follows. Chapman (Zigzag) will acquire, by begging, borrowing or stealing, a genuine N.R.I. card together with a green card in the same name, showing that he has registered with the Ministry of War Transport for service in the Merchant Navy. The next stage is for him to get himself on to a seamen's pool, and this can, I understand, be theoretically arranged by his approaching, directly or through an intermediary, such an employee of a shipping company as an Assistant Marine Superintendent, and arranging with the latter, for a consideration, to be offered a job on one of the company's vessels. Assistant → (page 33)
KV 2/457-2, page 33
Marine Superintendents may be the sort of people who can be bribed, and at any rate they are not fearfully high class. This man can then cause Zigzag's ordinary identity card to be exchanged for a Merchant Navy identity card. After this Chapman (Zigzag) will in due course find himself posted to a ship belonging to the employers of the Assistant Marine Superintendent, and will sail away to Lisbon. Jones will supply us with particulars of what would happen in the normal way before he will reach the ship.
On arrival in Lisbon Chapman (Zigzag) would apply for shore leave, and if the International Police give their consent, which normally they do, he will surrender to them his identity card and receive in exchange a shore pass. he then presents himself at the German rendezvouz (likely the KOP Office which was attached to the German Embassy), and they must then be ready forthwith to take him over and to supply him with a proper documentation, for if he fails to return to his ship he will be posted as a deserter and will be chased by the Portuguese police. It must be remembered that the latter will have his photograph, since this appears on his identity card.
knowing the Germans as we do it seems to me that unless Jones can device some other arguments it would be desirable for Chapman (Zigzag), before he leaves England, to arrange with the Germans without fail to take him at the rendezvous and immediately supply him with proper documentation.
B.1.a. 13.1.43 Sgd. J.H. Marriott
KV 2/457-2, page 46 (minute 125y)
Group Captain Archer, Major Robertson and I today met Colonel turner, who drove us to the De Havilland works at Hatfield to discuss methods of camouflaging the works to simulate sabotage.
On arrival at the the De Havilland works we met Mr. St. Barbe and discussed propositions. The main boiler house is situated right in the centre of the works and is easily seen from the roadway. This installation, however, does not provide the main motive power for the machinery but is used for supplying heat for the paint and dope shops in the constructional section and for generating about 50% of the electricity for the machinery. The other 50% of the power is supplied from the grid system and comes from a small sub-station which is situated near to the main boiler house and had the transformers in the open air for the dissipation of the heat. (P100) (P100return)
Colonel Turner thought that if camouflage was erected over the main boiler house it would indicate to the Germans that Zigzag had considered this place to be a primary objective and that, in the event of subsequent air reconnaissance taking place, a pin point would be gratuitously given to the Germans and enable them to bomb the works. (AOB, over-exaggerating the circumstances, as the Germans in early 1943 weren't able to maintain reconnaissance over the south of England anyway) We were left, therefore, with the alternative of sabotaging either the small-substation or some similar buildings which might house grid transformers. (Q100) (Q100return)
Mr. St. Barbe then conducted us over the works and, after a survey of various possibilities, we decided that a small building (S100) (S100return) and fairly close to the centre of the works near the swimming pool and fairly close to the centre of the works would be a satisfactory solution. colonel Turner will be taken his camouflage experts to De Havillands tomorrow to discuss the methods which shall be employed to provide effective cover against air reconnaissance and, at the moment, thinks that he can arrange for the whole operation to be completed in about ten days. Major Robertson will arrange with Home Forces for a P.R.U. to be taken after the sabotage has been carried out.
B.1.a. 13.1.43 Sgd. R,T. Reed
KV 2/457-2, page 47 (minute 125x)
Over your list of questions is so long and Zigzag's (Chapman's) memory so short I think it is better that you should have the results of the interrogations on this list in instalments. I managed to get through quite a lot of the questions yesterday and Zigzag has said that he will tax his memory even harder to try and establish a more exact chronology.
Zigzag left Jersey in November (1941) for Fort Romanville (Romainville). He left the camp at the end of April (1942) for Nantes. A week or ten days later (10th May?)(42) Morris came from Paris and brought with him a code practice set. This was a large box with paper rollers on top and a speed counter. Morris stayed at the Dienststelle for about one day and returned to Paris and Thomas (Praetorius) started training Zigzag (Chapman), using the Morse code practice machine. At that time the operator on the Dienststelle radio was Franz Schmidt.
1. (a) Zigzag (Chapman) commenced his practise in jumping, rolling and failing about the end or middle of May. he went to Paris and on to Le Bourget aerodrome for his first parachute descent between June the 1st and the 10th. Only one jump was made with limited success as there were one or two points about it, such as keeping his feet together and failing with greater elasticity, that were not correct. He returned to Paris, staying one night at the Grand Hotel and then continuing by train to Nantes.
His next parachute descent took place at the end of June, also from Le Bourget. He went there via Paris and made two descents; the first one was satisfactory, but on the the second one he fell heavily and damaged his teeth, having treatment from a German doctor in Le Bourget. he returned to Paris, spending a night there, and went to Nantes in the morning.
KV 2/457-2, page 48
When he arrived back in Nantes he was ill in bed for about five days (beginning of July) and had treatment from the French doctor, Bijet. he went to Berlin in the last week of July and stayed there seven days, returning to Paris at the beginning of August and breaking his journey to Nantes by going to Le Bourget. He flew from Le Bourget to Nantes and made a night descent with a pack. This would be on August the 1st or 2nd. The descent was made in the fields about two miles away from the Dienststelle and people from this place and from the nearby flak position were waiting for him.
After we had established this series of events Zigzag (Chapman) said something was wrong with his timetable as he had made four days descents followed by a night descent and this timetable which we had mapped by his night descent, but he was quite unable to find out where the other descent had got to.
(b) As he gave continuous demonstrations in wireless and sabotage to Graumann (Groening) and other members of the Dienststelle he could not remember when he was first examined in these subjects by any important people.
(c) I got round this point by asking Zigzag (Chapman) the methods he used to practise the Morse code and with which operators he practised, but I am afraid that non of these replies enabled me to lead up to the question of the practice buzzer ever being broken. The people who practised with him in Morse instruction were Robert Keller, Franz Schmidt, Morris, Vicki Probst and Thomas (Walter Praetorius).
(d) Graumann (Groening) was ill at at the beginning of July, for Zigzag (Chapman) remembers that this illness coincided with his dental treatment. Graumann was in a hospital in Nantes and was there for about ten days while he underwent a small operation. Vosch (Karl Barton) was in charge of the Dienststelle while Graumann was away.
(e) After his first parachute drop, which was not entirely successful, a discussion was held at the Dienststelle on the necessity for specific parachute training.
KV 2/457-2, page 49
Wolfgang arrived at Nantes at the beginning of June and, as he was under control of the Luftwaffe, it was felt that he would be a better candidate for receiving instruction than Leo, who had previously been giving Zigzag (Chapman) hints and tips. Wolfgang went away only a few days after he arrived (June) but Zigzag (Chapman) does not know where he went to except that it was to a German parachute battalion training school where Wolfgang stayed for about a week. On his return Zigzag's (Chapman's) training was entirely in Wolfgang's hands except for occasional exercises which he received from Leo.
(f) Zigzag (Chapman) signed his contract with Dr. Graumann (Groening) either during August or at the beginning of September.
(g) he obtained his English radio set (poor quality S.O.E. set) at the beginning of July, but has the transmitter was not in working order Neger came from Paris to repair it. When these repairs were completed Zigzag (Chapman) started transmitting to Morris in Paris. It was at this time that Franz Schmidt went to Bordeaux (July or the beginning of August). (Robert) Keller replaced Schmidt as an operator at the Nantes Dienststelle and came two or three days after Schmidt had left. During the period between the departure of Schmidt and the arrival of Keller, Thomas (Walter Praetorius; KV 2/524) took over the transmitting and these messages could be identified by signing them "Walter".
2. Most of this is covered under question 1.
3. Zigzag (Chapman) states that he has given descriptions of these people in Paris a number of times, but believes that his first trip to Paris was with Thomas between the 10th and the end of May. He went by train from Nantes to Paris and then to a flat off the Boulevard des Italiens. It was on the first floor and there was a radio transmitter in the flat. Albert opened the door and Graumann (Groening) was in the room with another man from Berlin whom Zigzag (Chapman) has already described. This man questioned him on his work in England and on his previous criminal life. Zigzag (Chapman) was then interviewed by a man who had been in jersey and who also knew all about the West End of London. Zigzag (Chapman) was asked questions about his ability → (page 50)
KV 2/457-2, page 50
to carry out espionage and if he knew anyone who had escaped from Jersey back to the U.K. Later "Brandy" came in with a bottle of brandy as a present and asked Zigzag (Chapman) questions about his Morse training - if he had seen the Dienststelle radio and was Thomas (Walter Praetorius) a good teacher. Shortly after this Zigzag (Chapman) left the flat and went to the station, catching the night train to Nantes. He can give no fuller description of the location of this flat than that it was near the boulevard des Italiens.
4. I mentioned the fact that we believed Zigzag (Chapman) had given information about two German officers in Jersey and also about the large two flats in connection with the Breton Nationalists. Zigzag (Chapman) maintained that he had never mentioned any of these things and that we must have got mixed up with someone else. I said that Jersey was probably a mis-print for Nantes and that I would make further enquiries and find out how this had occurred.
5. Zigzag (Chapman) did not go with Dr. Graumann (von Groening) to Berlin. When Zigzag (Chapman) was at the chateau in Berlin Dr. Graumann (von Groening) came to see him one day towards the end of Zigzag's (Chapman's) stay there. Graumann said that as he had heard Zigzag (Chapman) was in Berlin he thought he would like to come and see him.
Zigzag (Chapman) is unable to give and further description of the place in Berlin to which he was taken. He says that this was a private house which he has already described, but he was prevented from going out or inspecting the neighbourhood he is quite unable to enlarge on this description.
6. The Baustelle Kersting is the Nantes Dienststelle. Each Dienststelle (e.g. Bordeaux, Paris and elsewhere) is known as Baustelle. Kerstling is the name of the Doctor who first set up the Baustelle at Nantes, so that the Nantes Dienststelle becomes Baustelle Kersting. The Baustelle at Bordeaux may be Baustelle X, according to whoever was first responsible for its organisation. Zigzag (Chapman) was told that if he were caught carrying out any sabotage experiments he → (page 51)
KV 2/457-2, page 51
should say that he came from the Baustelle Kersting. The headquarters of all the Baustelle at Paris near the Grand Hotel, because Dr. Graumann (von Groening) (when in Paris) used to go there each day from the Grand Hotel and would take about four minutes to walk the distance. Zigzag (Chapman) does not know the exact location of the headquarters (Hotel Lutetia) (R101) (R101return). Obviously, therefore, Zigzag (Chapman) demonstrated his equipment and his sabotage ability before members of the Baustellen Kersting, because this was at Nantes Dienststelle and the personnel to whom he gave demonstrations were members of the Nantes organisation.
7. Zigzag (Chapman) can give no further particulars about his visit to Hamburg with Hans No. 1. He states that he stayed with relatives of Hans No. 1, but does not remember the address. He did not meet a Group Führer at Hamburt at all, buit at one time was introduced to a Sturmführer (See No. 15) (AOB: Sturmführer is an SS rank equal to a Lieutenant) and Ast Hamburg at that time was an Abwehrstelle (Ast) and was part of the O.K.W.; maybe Chapman mixed up with an Oblt.)
8. This has been described in a previous note to you.
9. The answer is no.
10. I have not questioned Zigzag (Chapman) on this yet, but I will do so as soon as possible.
11. I have already described this in a previous note to you.
12. The English newspapers were sent from Paris to the Nantes Dienststelle. Zigzag (Chapman) did not collect them himself and the newspapers were not marked in any special way, except that on the top copy the word "Dienststelle" was sometimes printed.
13. Zigzag (Chapman) is very mixed up in his descriptions of people to whom he gave demonstrations, as he says that he was → (page 52)
KV 2/457-2, page 52
continually showing people how he could mix explosives and arrange for delayed action. The general at Paris was not the same man to whom he gave demonstrations at Nantes, but was in charge of the whole of the Paris station (Obst. Rudolph; Leiter Alst Paris?) About two days before he left Paris for his aeroplane flight over here (to England) Zigzag (Chapman) was taken in front of the General (the highest rank in the German military Abwehr organisation was an Obst. (Colonel)), who had to sign the papers to authorise all the arrangements for his trip. He only stayed in the room for a few minutes, entering and departing with many "Heil Hitlers". Zigzag (Chapman) tells me he has already given a full description of this man.
14. If really required, Zigzag (Chapman) can describe fully the Grand Hotel in Paris, but the story of the American saboteurs is as follows:-
Zigzag's (Chapman's ) bedroom that of Dr. Graumann, but at the junction of these two there were two bathrooms, one belonging to Dr. Graumann (von Groening) and the other to Zigzag (Chapman). leading out of Zigzag's (Chapman's) bathroom into Dr. Graumann's bedroom were folding doors, in front of which there was a large cupboard. It was possible to by listening against this cupboard to hear conversations which are going on in the Doctor's room. One evening, when they had retired, Zigzag was in his bathroom he was able to overhear a conversation between Dr. Graumann and two other men who were speaking English with an American accent. he could not hear the conversation perfectly, but caught one of the American voices saying "What's the guy like?" and another who said "Cant we we see him?" (or something like that). It was impossible for him to hear the exact words of the conversation. Just before this, when Zigzag (Chapman) and Thomas were walking along the corridor in the Hotel Zigzag (Chapman) overheard the same English voices with American accents talking just around the corner, and as they approached the junction of the corridors these two American sounding voices disappeared into a bedroom nearby! Zigzag (Chapman) expressed to Thomas (Walter Praetorius) his surprise at hearing English spoken in the Grand Hotel, but Thomas said that the people were probably German soldiers who were practising their English.
15. Zigzag (Chapman) was introduced to a Sturmführer at Limoges (AOB, strange, it might be that Chapman is erroneous, as at that time SS personnel wasn't yet engaged in Abwehr matters, but they were in S.D. or police kind of work), → (page 53)
KV 2/457-2, page 53 + 54
where this man joined the party that was going on to Toulon. (AOB, strange, because this part of France was ruled by Vichy France and had been occupied since ca. 10 November 1942, and we were now dealing with summer 1942. This will not say, however, that on individual basis Germans travelled all over France) He was in German uniform, but Zigzag (Chapman) is not sure of the rank although he thinks it was that of Hauptmann. Zigzag (Chapman) believes this man was employed in some special job, about which he knows nothing, and says that the Sturmführer (Lieutenant) (S.S. rank!) was not entitled to insist upon salutes from German military personnel but that soldiers did salute him when he passed. Zigzag (Chapman) has given a description of this man already.
The Sturmführer's chauffeur was a man who had "played" at the Princes in Piccadilly and was a conjurer (illusionist).
The party left the hotel at Limoges together, but the Sturmführer went his own way when the reached Rodez. Zigzag (Chapman) believes that he was going on to the South of France.
Dr. Müller - When Zigzag (Chapman) first arrived at Nantes he says that the man in charge was Dr. Graumann (von Groening) He does not remember and other person being in charge except Vosch (Karl Barton, KV 2/2461) and Thomas (Walter Praetorrius, KV 2/524) while Graumann was away ill.
Albert - as far as Zigzag's memory is concerned he believes that this man came to the Dienststelle in September (1942).
Hauptmann Ackerman - I asked Zigzag (Chapman) why de doctor of languages came down from Paris to Nantes. Zigzag (Chapman) said that he had no idea as he believed the man was an expert employed on propaganda. This Doctor of languages was especially good on Scandinavian. He never gave Zigzag (Chapman) instruction in anything.
I will question Zigzag
on your other points when i can, but for the moment these answers may help you
to identify some of the personnel occurring in the most secret sources material.
points out that a
when we deal with France, not Berlin)
Officer questioned him about a man called Gaston Bergery. The
information which Zigzag (Chapman)
gave him was investigated by this officer and later he came back to Zigzag (Chapman)
very annoyed as Zigzag (Chapman)
was just over a year out in all his dates. I think this poor memory on his part
is quite genuine.
B.1.a. 13.1.43 Sgd. R.T. Reed
KV 2/457-3, page 43 (minute 106xk)
Report dated 7th January 1943
1. The story of many a spy is commonplace. It would not pass muster in fiction. The subject is a failure in life and those who train him do not appreciate he must fail in espionage as he fails in everything else. The motive is sordid. Fear is present. Patriotism is absent. Silence is not the equipment of a brave man, rather is it a reaction to a dread of consequence. High adventure means just nothing at all.
The story of Chapman, the spy of the German secret Service who landed by parachute in the night of 15/16th December in Cambridgeshire, is different. In fiction it would be rejected as improbable. The subject is a crook, but as a crook he is by no means a failure. His career in crime has been progressive, from Army desertion to indecency, from women to blackmail, from robbery to the blowing of safes. Latterly his rewards have been large and no doubt he despises himself for the petty beginnings. Today there is no trace of sodomy and gone is any predilection for living on women on the fringe of society. The man, essentially vain. has grown in stature and, in his own estimation, is something of a prince of the underworld. He has no scruples and will stop at nothing. (AOB: this analysis might say at least as much about the person who write this down, than about Chapman) He plays for high stakes and would have the world know it. He makes no bargain with society and money is a means to an end. Of fear he knows nothing, and while patriotism is not a positive virtue he certainly has a deep rooted hatred of the Hun. In a word, adventure to Chapman is the breath of life. Given adventure he has the courage to achieve the unbelievable. Discretion is not his strong suit, yet paradoxically spy; tomorrow perhaps he will undertake a desperate hazard as an active agent-double, the stake for which is his life. Without adventure he would rebel; in the ultimate he will have recourse again to crime in search of the unusual.
(AOB: it becomes time and again apparent - that quite many members of the British Secret Services, albeit, not academically graduated in psychology, they gave their meaning and evaluations on individuals with whom they have an eminent antipathy, as if they possess the only truth on earth; whilst they themselves being - as all humans - with rather many shortcomings: the Jews call this - a: Gotspe)
2. At the beginning of the war Chapman fled from Edinburgh police to Jersey. Soon he found himself in the hands of the police again. Then came the German occupation, and if Chapman at that stage is to be believed, he (after quite some time) offered to work for the Germans as a means of escape. In due course he was contacted by the German Secret Service, who set about training him as a high grade saboteur and spy. For once in a way it must be conceded (agreed) the German Secret service did their work well. In Nantes they had the wisdom to accept this crook as an equal in an officers' mess. They pandered to his vanity, granted his liberty and treated him with respect. In the end he became something of a hero, for he won a wager for the mess by worming his way into the well guarded arsenal and there a dummy package of explosives, wholly unobserved. On his departure for England he was seen off by members of the mess and the Chief of the Dienststelle promised champagne all around on receipt of a message from Chapman (Fritzchen) which would herald the success of his mission. The Germans, however, made two fatal mistakes. In the first place they had scared?? him before departure as a last vital check of his good faith, yet in the hurry of the moment thrust into his hand English banknotes bound in a German bank rapper which proved conclusively that Germany was the country of origin. When I told Chapman that wrapper might cost him his neck (bluff; as the first matter he commenced was went to a farm house, and giving himself up to the British Police), his respect for the British Secret service in relation to the German Secret Service was established in our favour.
KV 2/457-3, page 44
In the second place, when searching for the motive of surrender on arrival in England, I asked Chapman whether the Germans were aware of the hazard, for not only was he known to the police but also to associate thieves among whom honour is a quality unknown. Chapman replied he had made this plain to (Walter) Praetorius and Graumann (von Groening), and had asked for America as an alternative venue. Then with some bitterness he added Praetorius and Graumann (von Groening) had laughed, saying a criminal was the type of man who was of service, for he would never dare to betray them. There lies the blackmail, there lies the beginning of Chapman's hatred for the Boches who otherwise have treated him well, and there lies the reason for his surrender on arrival in England, notwithstanding the risk of penal servitude for crimes at present untried.
3. Chapman landed in Cambridgeshire at 02.25 hours on 16.12.42 and immediately took steps to inform the police of his arrival. At the same time he placed himself at the disposal of the british authorities to work against the Germans.
Colonel Hinchley Cooke took a statement from him, and it was then the intention to hand him over to B.1.a direct for XX (double-cross) purposes. It transpired, however, that Chapman had a long criminal record which included safe-breaking and escaping from prison, so a decision was made to send him to Camp 020 for custody and examination overnight. Procedural difficulties arose, for the time was a vital factor and if attention had been paid to detail we might never have arrived at the crucial stage of the case before Chapman was taken away again. I therefore decided on a general interrogation, leaving detail for investigation if and when opportunity recurred. I make this particular point as the investigation to date is somewhat disjoined and it may well be, therefore, that the liquidation Report, edited I think ably by Lieut. Shanks, is perhaps of more than usual interest. It has been seen by all officers who have been engaged on the case, and it is agreed that it properly represents the facts.
4. On 17.12.42 I reported to the effect that Chapman should be used for XX (Double-cross) purposes, that Camp 020 was no place from which he should be used, but that he should be kept under active supervision. In view of his past, I did not think he could be safely used out of England. Late that night, however, I had a long conference with officers who were with me in the investigation of the case, and I sent a further report on 18.12.42. From the point of view of British contre-espionage I thought the opinion I had given was essentially sound. If, however, the problem was to be confidential from the United Nations' (AOB: I suppose meant - joined Anglo-American; less Russian) point of view, then there was a case for sending Chapman abroad. Chapman's mission in England was described as a limited objective. The German Secret Service were anxious for his return in order that he could participate in an even larger sabotage scheme in America. Now contre-espionage on behalf of America is an issue of major policy and quite outside the functions of Ham, but recent cooperation with the F.B.I. did bring the issue into focus, and the further opinion was forwarded for what it was worth.
5. The liquidation Report is necessarily of the some length, and it may therefore be of use if I drew attention to certain salient aspects of the case:-
a) The Germans fear the De Havilland "Mosquito" bomber. In order to cripple the the works at Hatfield the Germans have risked a first class saboteur, notwithstanding the more ambition sabotage project in America.
KV 2/457-3, page 45
Report dated 7 January 1943
b) Chapman was instructed to obtain the following information:-
(i) Particulars of movements of American troops;
(ii) Description of any large convoys of American lorries that he should see moving about the country;
(iii) Information about American totem signs, i.e., Divisional Signs;
(iv) Reports on trains carrying was materials and tickets attached to the freight cars, which would in all probability give the destination.
(v) Ship building.
A comparison with questionnaires of previous spies is interesting. My impression, for what it is worth, is that the Germans are becoming uneasy and are turning to defensive espionage.
c) During an interview by Captain Short, at which Mr. Reed (B.1.a.) was present, Chapman observed that if we could only break the code used by the Germans in transmitting messages between the various Dienststellen in France, our Intelligence Service would benefit considerably thereby. Both Captain Short and Mr. Reed agreed with Chapman that this would indeed be an advantage.
d) The information obtained in regard to the Paris, Nantes and Bordeaux Dienststellen may be of value to M.I.5 and S.I.S. It also occurs to me it might be of passing interest to the R.A.F.
Wojch Vosch (Karl
Barton; KV 2/2461) is of interest in view
of his connection with the I.R.A. The fact that he may now be in America
may be of value to the F.B.I..
f) Chapman's cover address in Lisbon is
Francisco Lopez da Fonseca
Rua Mamede 50-1 Esq.
For what Chapman's view is worth, this address is a general clearing house for German agents who find themselves in Portugal.
This address has recurred in the recent case at Camp 020 of Mesquita dos Santos.
g) The use of the Personal Column of "The Times" by the German Secret Service deserves enquiry.
I would prefer to quit the Camp 020 interrogations as their content isn't fitting into the concept of the endeavour.
KV 2/457-4, page 3
Nantes Dienststelle (la Bretonniere).
The following is a list of the personnel of the Dienststelle known to Chapman:-
Dr. Graumann. Chief of the Dienststelle. Chapman was certain that the name Graumann was genuine, as he had seen letters from Paris and Germany delivered under it.
Though Graumann spoke excellent English, he only admitted to having spent three weeks in England. It appeared that he had had a very good private tutor. Graumann claimed to have spent several years in America, but did not speak English with an American accent.
Walter Thomas @ Praetorius (Walter Praetorius @ Thomas) Second-in-command. Wireless operator who occasionally replaced Keller. He studied at University College, Southampton for 12 or 13 months, about 1926, under the exchange scheme. He was the best oarsman of his year there, and possessed a rowing tie and scarf. His principal role was that of companion to Chapman.
Robert Keller. Chief wireless operator. An expert, with a sending speed of 110 letters per minute.
Franz Schmidt. The best wireless operator at the Dienststelle. This man had worked as a waiter at Frascati's in London. When Chapman met him, he had recently spent some time in Spain, and in fact, he returned there for a period of three or four weeks after Chapman's first visit to Berlin and Chapman states that he heard Schmidt's transmission coming through.
Hermann Wojch (Vosch) Saboteur and one of Chapman's instructors in sabotage. This man had been in Paris in the early days of the war, and had killed a number of Allied officers by planting a bomb in a hotel. He also been the Germans' agent in this country during during the I.R.A. outrages, and Chapman gathered that he had been responsible for a number of bomb outrages attributed to the I.R.A.
Shortly before the war, it appeared that Vosch had narrowly missed being arrested in a night-club raid off Leicester Square, but escaped, and left the country on a French passport, entering Belgium via Ostend. he was subsequently arrested, in Belgium, → (page 4)
KV 2/457-4, page 4
but released as no charge could be brought against him. From this time until the German occupation he had been in France.
Chapman also learned that Vosch had an Irish girl friend in the Hyde Park Hotel.
Vosch fell into disfavour with Graumann on account of having, in the company of another member of the Dienststelle, Hans or Jean Wilhelms, (see below), taken three girls to a party in a staff car. Wilhelms was abruptly transferred to another Dienststelle, and Wojch (Vosch) was also removed. from a conversation he overheard, and from certain remarks by Vosch himself, Chapman believes that he is now in America.
In this connection, Chapman remarked that certain large scale sabotage activities were being planned in America by the Germans, but he could give no precise details whatsoever.
Hans/Jean No.1 surname Wilhelms) Sabotage agent and chauffeur, who also made most of the Black Market purchases for the Dienststelle. With Vosch, this man had been in Paris in the early days of the war and it was he who hosted about Vosch's exploits in this country.
Hans/Jean No. II Successor of his namesake. Was instructed by Black Market buying by Hans or jean No. 1 before his transfer.
Leo. (surname unknown) Sabotage agent. Chapman gathered, from indirect hints from leo himself, that he had been to this country on some mission, and had returned.
Wolfgang (surname unknown) Saboteur. belonged to the Luftwaffe.
Albert (surname unknown) This man joined the Nantes personnel after Chapman's first visit to Paris, during which they had met. Studied wireless telegraphy in Nantes, and also acted as cpmpanion to Chapman.
Before the war, had been an agent for some German firm in Liberia.
Oblt. Schindel (Schindl?) Shortly before Chapman left, this man came to the Dienststelle to learn W/T/ he had recently returned from the Russian front, and had lost an eye.
Gerhardt Chief Paymaster (ZF). Chapman received all his payments from this man.
Hanner Clerk and paymaster (assistant?)
The foregoing is fairly complete list of the personnel of the Dienststelle. members in residence congregated ar table, and Chapman states that their number varied form nine or twelve normally, about eighteen on occasions.
In addition to these, however, there were frequent visitors to the Dienststelle, either regular or occasional. Chapman has given details of a number of these, although his information is of necessity vague and incomplete, as most visitors naturally came to see Graumann, and Chapman was only introduced to them occasionally, if at all. Furthermore, names were seldom mentioned in his presence.
The following is a list of these visitors, classified as far as possible.
KV 2/457-4, page 5
1. From other Dienststellen.
i. Technicial Neger.
At one time when Chapman's W/T set broke down, a technician was sent from Paris to repair it. This operation took two or three days and Graumann told Chapman to pay particular attention and thus gain a little technical knowledge in repair work. Chapman appears to have seen this man on this occasion only.
Towards the end of August (1942), a man believed by Chapman to be German, but known as George came from Paris and spent about a week at Nantes.
iii. Young German Lieutenant.
In the late summer, after George had left, Graumann went to Paris, for about a week, and a young German Lieutenant came from the Paris Leitstelle, ostensibly to replace him. He did no work, however, and gave Chapman to understand that he was recuperating (recovering) from the effects of over-work in Paris.
This Lieutenant belonged to one of the crack German regiments, the Herman Goering, but was now out of the Army, as a result of a wound which had left him slightly lame.
iv. Girlfriend of Wolfgang.
The lieutenant's visit coincided with that of a girl, also from the Paris Leitstelle, who was a friend of Wolfgang.
i. First Doctor.
At the end of July (1942), after Chapman's return from his first visit to Berlin, a doctor whom he had already seen there visited the Nantes Dienststelle. He had seen this man at a time he burned his face and hand during an acid-fuse experiment.
This doctor instructed him in certain fuses, and asked various questions about Chapman's work during a short visit of about two hours.
This doctor obviously a friend of Graumann, and appeared to be interested in W/T and sabotage.
ii. Second Doctor - Dr. of Languages. (Hans Meisner later Leiter KO Switzerland; PF 600813)
Towards the end of the summer, during Graumann's absence and a short time afterwards, a second German doctor came from Berlin, after apparently been in Paris for a short time. Though Graumann treated him with respect, and saluted him whenever they met, this doctor was not popular in the Dienststelle.
Chapman does not think that this man had anything to do with his case, but he appeared to be interested and asked him several questions. He had the impression that this doctor was afterwards sent on some mission to Scandinavia (AOB, in my perception not very likely, considering his later status in Switzerland), and adds that he spoke one of the Scandinavian languages. (AOB, why they added PF 600813 of Hans Meisner I don't known)
iii. Third Doctor - with Hitler Moustache.
The third German doctor (think of an academic degree then of a medical qualification), a Hitler type with a small moustache, called to see Graumann on one occasion. He appeared to be a person of some authority, as he was saluted by all members of the Dienststelle.
This man asked Chapman if he knew something about secret inks, but gave no reason for the question, and did not pursue the subject.
KV 2/457-4, page 6
i. Man from Establishment for Capture of Allied Agents. (Dernbach's file PF 600192 no longer existing)
In the middle of July (1942), when Chapman was ill, a man came to see him whom he believed to be one of the heads of an establishment responsible for the capture of Allied agents. This man showed Chapman a number of photographs for identification and he also asked Chapman if he knew Lady Lonsdale, or any Lonsdale who had been in trouble in England. Eventually it transpired that he referred to the man implicated in the notorious Hide Park robbery. However, Chapman only knew of the affair from the newspapers and as he did not know the man personally, the matter was dropped, although he did hear it mentioned that this man's wife had been a British agent, in Nantes. One of the photographs was of this woman.
Chapman had a second visit of this man some time in September (1942). On this occasion he tested Chapman's knowledge of acid fuses, and seemed satisfied with the result.
ii. Man from the Angers Dienststelle.
About the end of November (1942) (28th-29th), just before he left Nantes, Chapman had a visit from a man who had apparently to deliver something to Graumann, as he was carrying a large leather portfolio.
Chapman accompanied this man to an address in Guemene Penfac, about 30 km. from Nantes, where Black Market produce could be obtained, and brought back a supply of corn for the grease which were kept at the Dienststelle.
iii. Major and Soldiers from Angres.
A Major arrived at the Dienststelle on one occasion accompanied by a number of soldiers, Chapman understood that this major was head of a Dienststelle in Angers, similar to that of Nantes. The man appeared to be senior to Graumann and wore the iron Cross, 2nd Class. (AOB, this one only was worn at the moment one received it, afterwards one wears a coloured strip indicating that someone once had been awarded the EK 2)
2. Visit to Inspect Chapman's Progress.
i. Colonel from the Panzer Division.
Sometime about the beginning of October (1942), a colonel in uniform from a Panzer Division arrived in Nantes with a chauffeur, evidently to inspect Chapman's progress in sabotage. Graumann instructed Chapman to carry out a time explosion combined with burning, with a one hour time limit. Chapman prepared a charge of two kg under a tree stump, using batteries and his wrist-watch as a fuse. The demonstration was highly successful, though the time was two minutes late.
3. Visitors in connection with Chapman's departure for England.
This man was a frequent visitor to the Dienststelle, and often dined there, bringing guests with him.
He was the head of the Nantes branch of an organisation Ïa Bretagne pour les Bretons", a movement ostensibly patriot, but in reality cooperating with the Germans. Part of its activity considered in the planting of bogus De Gaullists in England.
It should be stressed that five or six Frenchmen who had been visiting the Dienststelle at Nantes for training were eventually sent to England through the medium of the De Gaullist escape organisation.
At one point is was suggested that Chapman should be sent to England by this means, but the proposition was dropped.
(AOB: I suppose we close this summary, as we should be more interested in the wider implication on the Chapman Zigzag case)
Chapman Edward Arnold
KV 2/458-1, page 4 (minute 238b)
4th March, 1943
You wrote to commander Senter on the 15th February (1943) enclosing some photographs of dummy transformers and asking our technical people to let you have some information as to the quantity of explosives necessary to produce the damage shown.
I think that one of our technical officers spoke to you on the telephone and was able to give you certain information, but perhaps you would like a letter from me as well, in case you have to enact another similar scene in the future.
Our technical people say that the damage to the 8 units shown in the photographs (see next) could be easily have been done with 20 lbs (ca. 0.9 kg) of explosives. They make, however, one reservation. The photographs shown two units to have been overturned. Our people will not pledge themselves that this would necessarily have occurred, since this depends on weight, height, centre gravity, method of fixing and other factors, on which they can not express an opinion without seeing the objects. A further reason for their hesitation arises from the fact that you can not express an opinion without seeing the objects. A further reason for their hesitation arises from the fact that you subsequently told Major Goodwin that the "plot' provided "for the charge being placed under the units", and we have no practical experience of placing charges in that position. Our procedure evolved by experience and practise is to the charges on the side. A small charge placed on the side blows a hole in the transformer tank, the oil pours out and probably catches fire. The transformer may or may not be over-turned, according to the quantity of explosive used and the factors referred to above, but the transformer is destroyed.
I attach for your information a copy of a report on two trials recently carried out. The second trial is the most lifelike, as in that case the transformer was filled with oil. The transformer was smaller than the units in your problem but you will see that in the trial 1½ lbs of P.E., placed on the side, was sufficient to put the unit out of commission.
Our technical people also say they are a little puzzled by photograph E. and F.? If the "plot" had provided for the charge to be placed on the side the transformer might have been thrown over leaving the base undamaged as shown in the photograph. (which one where?) As the "plot" provided for the charge being laid underneath they would expect to see damage to the base of the transformer.
I pass this information on to you in the hope that it may be of assistance in any future case, but I need hardly say that if time permits our technical people would be very glad to meet you and give you any assistance they can.
Would you return the report on the trial when you have finished with it.
T.G. Roche (Major)
KV 2/458-1, page 5
Please notice the building with the cupola on its roof (T101) (T101return)
KV 2/458-1, page 39 (minute 237a)
4th March, 1943
My dear Foley,
I should be most grateful if you would send the following information to your Lisbon office (AOB: Mr. Foley often operated from Lisbon) in connection with the case of Zigzag (Chapman).
"Zigzag is leaving the U.K. on 5th or 6th March on 21546 (likely a ship-number) as assistant steward under the name of Hugh Anson. The Captain of the vessel has been taken into full confidence and has been informed that Anson is working for the British Intelligence. He has been told to keep this information strictly to himself".
In case you want the name of the the ship, of which I have given only the number, it is the "City of Lancaster". I have no idea how long it will take to get to Lisbon but I should not think it will be more than seven or eight days.
T.A. Robertson (TAR)
Major F. Foley, C.M.C. S.I.S. (M.I.6)
KV 2/458-1, page 41 (minute 235c)
Report of Activities in Liverpool.
Zigzag, Tooth and I (Mr. R.T. Reed) left Euston (Station in London) 10.35 a.m. on Saturday 27th February, and arrived at Liverpool 15.10. Mr. Wilkie had booked rooms for Zigzag and Tooth at the Washington Hotel and for me at the Adelphi Hotel. Zigzag and Tooth went to the Washington Hotel and I rang Mr. Wilkie and arranged to meet him at 16.30 at the Adelphi.
When Mr. Wilkie arrived we discussed what should be the procedure in getting Zigzag on board his ship and in what capacity he should be employed. This discussion lasted until late in the evening and we had to overcome a very great number of difficulties. Mr. Wilkie thought that it was necessary for Zigzag to have, in addition to the documents which had been provided, a Selection Card, and we could obtain further information from contact of Mr. Wikie's, next morning. The C.R.S.4 Form was not sufficient to enable Zigzag to take up his position on board the ship, and we could either obtain this selection Card from Liverpool or ask London to provide one. It was considered, however, that it would prove very much quicker to obtain one in Liverpool than ask for special delivery from London.
The main difficulty was in copying with the interrogation, of the Field security Police of the members of the crew before the ship set sail. We considered a number of stories which Zigzag could tell to cover this. He could say, for example, that he had escaped from Jersey and had been interrogated in London by the British Authorities and that they had recommended that he should either go in the Forces or be employed in the merchant Navy. Alternatively he could say he had been in prison for the last few years and that on release he was given the option either of going in the Army or going to sea. A further suggestion made by Mr. Wilkie was that he could say to the members of the crew on board ship that he managed to obtain the position by influences as various friends of his did not wish to go into the Forces.
Zigzag could either take the post of fireman, greaser or Ordinary Seaman, and Zigzag himself was very worried because he did not think he would be able up a sufficiently good show as a fireman. His Discharge Book and other papers had been marked as greaser (someone lubricating) and Captain Sheppard the Marine Superintendent has offered him a job a board the "City of Lancaster" in this capacity.
After a considerable discussion, we decided that Zigzag's story should be that he spent the last five years in Lewes Goal and that he had been released on Ticket of leave, had come to Liverpool and had reported to the Police, after having been offered a job by the Prisoners' Aid Society. On Zigzag's suggestion, it was agreed that he could tell the enemy that he had brought with him the real Hugh Anson who had reported to the Police in Liverpool and that after having done so, Zigzag took over the real Hugh Anson's identity. This would cover the F.S.P. interrogation on board ship, and if they were to query the Liverpool Police, we could arrange that they would confirm that Hugh Anson had reported to them from London. It was necessary therefore to arrange for the following three things:-
1. We should see the Police and arrange for them to say that Hugh Anson had reported to them at Liverpool, having been released from Lewes Prison, and that they understand that he was going to take a job as seaman.
KV 2/458-1, page 42
2. We should see Captain Hobbs (Mr. Wilkie's contact at the Seamen's Home) and find out if a hypothetical man needed a Selection Card having been documented in London.
3. As the F.S.P. might possibly carry out a thorough search of the ship and of Zigzag's effects, we should take the Captain of the "City of Lancaster' into our confidence, and ask him to take with him a sealed envelope containing £50 in money, the stolen Ration Cards and Clothing Book, and a revolver (AOB, it should have been the same weapon which Chapman possessed when he landed on British soil on 16th November 1942. A revolver is typical an American type of weapon and not quite common on the Continent, where they mainly rely upon pistols instead)
On Sunday Zigzag and Tooth surveyed the Docks for information and I met Mr. Wilkie at 10.00 and went to Captain Hobbs' address to enquire about the Selection Card. Captain Hobbs confirmed that it was absolutely essential and I agreed that the order to save time we should have to obtain this in some way from the Liverpool authorities. One snag appeared here, however, as the Selection Card has to be presented at the counter, and the counterfoil has to be sent to the Reserve Pool so that C.R.S.4 form can be obtained in return. It would be necessary therefore to make arrangements with Mr. Stowe at the Selection Card and we would give him in return for it, the C.R.S.4 form. This could be done by Mr. Stowe sending a note to the clerk at the counter that he wished to be given the Selection Card when it was brought in for stamping.
Mr. Wilkie then saw Mr. Dean at the Pool and asked him for a Selection Card for one of his own people who, it was thought, was going sick and would not be able to join the ship, so that if necessary Mr. Wilkie would effect a substitute. This Selection Card was a blank one except for the rubber stamp and it was red in colour. The card could be filled in and forged by us after we had seen Captain Sheppard at Lunch the next day. I obtained the information about the Merchant Shipping that Zigzag had picked up at the Docks, and phoned it to London for approval in the C.B. Code. I also rang Hooton, the R.S.L.O. at Manchester to tell him that Hugh Anson, the man who was concerned in Operation Nightcap (Chapman's future landing at British soil), and Tooth and I were at present in his area in Liverpool and will be staying until the middle or the end of the week. The information about the Merchant Shipping was approved that evening and Zigzag wrote this in secret ink and added it to the information which had been written in London.
The evening was spent going over the whole of Zigzag's cover story to make quite sure that he had everything clear, and as Zigzag wished to write to Freda White, I suggested that he should send a letter to Mr. Marshall who would forward (would he?) it on to Freda.
On Monday Mr. Wilkie and I (Mr. Reed) met Zigzag and Tooth at 10.15 together with Captain Hobbs, who was to be known as Jackie Burns. It was thought that Captain Hobbs would be invaluable in seeing that Zigzag reached the correct departments, giving him advice on the correct things that he should by for the position of fireman or greaser. Mr. Wilkie and I met Captain Sheppard the Marine Superintendent at the Adelphi at 12.30 and arrangements for Zigzag to be taken on the "City of Lancaster" as a fireman, I decided that Captain Sheppard should know a little more on the Zigzag story, as it was clear that Captain Sheppard did not realise all implications of leakage of information of Zigzag's arrival in Lisbon. After telling Captain Sheppard that Zigzag had already been in contact with the enemy and that therefore they knew exactly what he had been doing during the past → (page 43)
KV 2/458-1, page 43
year, Captain Sheppard agreed that it would be better for Zigzag to be placed as assistant steward. He would say that he was approached by the Prisoner's Aid Society to give place to a man who had a bad record but who it was thought had turned over a new leaf. This would excite no suspicion on board the ship as the Chief Steward would be only too pleased to receive additional help. The post of fireman which was first agreed upon, would not be at all suitable as the Second Engineer was responsible for engaging any members of the engineering staff and would not under any circumstances have agreed to give the job to a man who had such a criminal record. Captain Sheppard agreed that the captain of the "City of Lancaster" should be told that Hugh Aston was working for the British Intelligence and that he should be asked to take a sealed envelope in his safe to be handed to Anson on arrival in Lisbon. This should be done discreetly and without any other members of the crew being told about it.
After lunch Captain Sheppard saw Zigzag and told him to go to his office in Tower Buildings at 11.00 a.m. the next day when he would give him a note to take to the Shipping Master to say that he had been offered a job on board the "City of Lancaster" as assistant steward. Captain Sheppard also arranged for Mr. Wilkie and myself to see the Captain of the "City of Lancaster" at Captain Sheppard's office on Wednesday morning at 11.00 a.m.
It was now necessary to obtain a steward's uniform in place of the fireman's one and as Zigzag had already been to the Board of Trade to obtain coupons, the only outlet was to fill up the blank clothing book which he was taking with him to Lisbon, and use the coupons in that. It may be mentioned there that when Zigzag was purchasing his fireman's equipment in the morning at a shop owned by a man called Collins, he was asked a number of questions and the man was fairly insistent that he had either heard the name Anson before or he knew Zigzag by sight. This gave rise to some speculation as to whether the real Hugh Anson was in Liverpool or was in fact at sea, and it was considered necessary to try and find out immediately the exact whereabouts of the real Hugh Anson.
We were now ready to fill in the Selection Card but as some doubt was expressed over whether the Reserve Pool official signed his name in full or whether it was just initialled, we asked Captain Hobbs if he could come to the Adelphi to give his advice. Captain Hobbs confirmed on arrival what we had anticipated, i.e. that the selection Card had the name in full of the Reserve Pool Official and it would be essential to forge the card in this name. Captain Hobbs then remembered that another agent of Mr. Wilkie's had that day received a selection card in the Catering department and we could obtain this as a sample to be copied. Mr. Wilkie procured this and I started to forge the name, when it was noticed that the Catering Department card was found that the red card was quite useless as they were issued for for the Catering department. An immediate conference with Captain Hobbs was obviously desirable and Mr. Wilkie and I went to his home and agreed that we had two courses of action open to us; either to get Captain Hobbs to attempt to obtain one by the simple process of stealing, or we would arrange for Captain Hobbs brother to ask the clerk at the desk to let him have a blank one. The former course, though morally incorrect, was practically the more suitable, and the three of us went to the Reserve Pool in the car and Captain Hobbs investigate the Catering department in the guise of firewatching.
A few minutes later in the "Flying Dutchman", Captain Hobbs returned and reported success and produced a Catering Selection Card which had been discarded and which was blank except for a few words which had been written on in pencil. After they had been erased, the card was found to be quite suitable, and this was forged later in the evening, with apparent instructions to Zigzag to report the next day. Captain Hobbs agreed to meet Zigzag → (page 44)
KV 2/458-1, page 44
at 11.30 next morning in order to give him advice, and where to to go to the office of the Board of Trade.
On Tuesday morning Mr. Wilkie took me to Preston Police Headquarters where we saw Deputy Chief Constable Mr. Thornton and Inspector Cousins. We told them that we whished to have urgently information regarding the present whereabouts of one Hugh Anson who was thought to have had his last conviction in Preston in July 1941. The latest information in the possession of the Police headquarters at Preston was dated July 1941. Mr. Thornton arranged that if we could return at 3 p.m. further details would be available. I went with Mr. Wilkie to Fleetwood and on returning to Preston. headquarters were were told that Hugh Anson was at present serving in the R.A.F. as A/C 1494449, headquarters, 71 Wing, Culter House, Mill Timber, Aberdeen, and was expected to leave there in about three weeks when it was thought that he was going home and would be marrying Alice Hitchens, of Holcombe Brook, Near. Bury.
The real Hugh Anson had been dismissed from the Bury Corporation in September 1941 and had been a member of the R.A.F. for six or eight months. He was known to the Police in Preston as hugh Anson alias Stromberg.
I arrived at the Adelphi at 16.50 and hearing from Mr. Wilkie that Tooth had telephoned him at Washington Hotel and heard that Zigzag was told at the Board of Trade that he should present himself at the "City of Lancaster' at 12.30. Captain Hobbs had told him that he could probably wait until 3.0 but there was no certainty about it as the ship might possibly be sailing that night. Tooth had correctly restrained Zigzag and had told him to wait until I returned; meanwhile packing his suitcase and thoroughly searching all Zigzag clothes. I met Zigzag at the Adelphi with Tooth, most immediately, and received from Zigzag details of his signing on during the morning. This had not been without incident, though what had occurred had not thrown suspicion on Zigzag in the slightest way. Zigzag had previously been told by Mr. Wilkie and myself (and this was reiterated (repeated) by Captain Hobbs that same morning) that if he asked if he wished to make an allotment to anyone he should say he did not. However, when the question was put to him he said he did and that he wished to make it to his friend John Simpson, 96, Church Road, Richmond.
The clerk at the counter, when Zigzag signed on, was, it appears, annoyed that the Shipping Company had sent another Assistant Steward and said that it appeared as if the authorities did not know exactly what they were doing. The Selection Card was inspected without query and I heard later that there had been some slight muddle (confusion) over the staff allocated to the "City of Lancaster" as another ship of the same Line was also having the crew allocated to it at the same time and that a mix-up had occurred. Fortunately no suspicion of Zigzag's entry to the ship occurred at any time. Zigzag had been told by Captain Hobbs that the ship was at the moment at Brocklebank Docks and he made his way there in approved style with kit-bag over his shoulder.
The plain sheets of white paper containing secret ink together with some envelopes were packet in his kitbag as I considered this would excite no suspicion if it were found. Tooth and I followed Zigzag (Chapman) at a very respectable distance but somehow or other, after trudging (tramping) for a number of miles round the docks, Zigzag disappeared and after a a further half-hour's search, for the "City of Lancaster", Tooth and I started back for the Adelphi. Some sort of feminine intuition however told Tooth and I to investigate the Washington Hotel before returning to the Adelphi and sure enough Zigzag was in the bar with a prostitute. He did → (page 45)
KV 2/458-1, page 45
not see Tooth, and we telephoned from the Adelphi when he returned. he had left his things on board and reported that all had gone well. He had been told that he could go off for the day as he was not required and that he should report back to the ship at 8.00 a.m. the next morning. He did not wish to dine with us as he was "busy" but would come over to the Hotel at 9.00 p.m. Zigzag had in some way, managed to obtain entry and was reclining on the bed awaiting dinner which he had ordered on my telephone (together with a number of bottles of beer). Zigzag had apparently met the skipper of the "City of Lancaster" in Captain Sheppard's office that morning and said that Captain Sheppard played his part extremely well and appeared as if he was however very kind in giving Zigzag instructions how to find it, and Zigzag thought that he was rather too kind and would possibly be told helpful during the voyage. I said that I did not believe the Skipper of the ship knew anything about Zigzag's connection with the British intelligence as yet, but that we were seeing him next morning and would make quite sure that their relationship was as it should be. Zigzag was just a little disturbed that the Captain of the ship was an Irishman but I re-assured him on this point.
I met Mr. Wilkie on Wednesday morning and after seeing Captain Hobbs and hearing the story of Zigzag's signing on, Mr. Wilkie and I went to the Ministry of War Transport and obtained a large envelope overprinted O.H.M.S. Into a plain envelope was placed:-
1. Ration book.
2. Four press cuttings (inside the above).
3. Clothing Book.
4. Personal Ration Book.
5. Warden's Card for householders
6. Hotel registration Card AR/E
7. £50. in £1 notes (numbers attached
8. Revolver with loaded chamber
9. Chamber containing spare bullets.
This plain envelope was then placed in a larger envelope marked O.H.M.S. and the whole tied with a string and sealed with a blue seal.
Mr. Wilkie and I then went to Captain Sheppard's office in the Tower Buildings and met the Captain of the ship. We impressed upon him that Zigzag's life was from now on in the Captain's hands and that it was absolutely essential that no word of Zigzag's mission should become known to any of the crew. Zigzag intended to desert in Lisbon and he should be reported to the to authorities as a deserter in the same way that all other members of crews who do similar things would be reported. We gave him the sealed envelope and asked him to keep it in his safe so that on arrival at Lisbon he, the Captain, would cut the string and destroy the O.H.M.S. envelope and give Zigzag the inner envelope and the revolver. We again impressed upon the Captain the absolute necessity for secrecy in this operation. The captain stated that he had seen Zigzag that morning and had got the impression that Zigzag was very willing and that no suspicion whatsoever was attached to him. The Captain impressed me as being discreet and I feel he will cooperate fully.
Mr. Wilkie and I then went to the Board of Trade office and saw Mr. Stowe who gave us the counterfoil of the selection Card in return for the C.R.S.4. We then went to the Police office and saw Superintendent Thomas and Chief Inspector Tilley and told them we were shipping on the "City of Lancaster" a man who was assuming the name Hugh Anson. The real Hugh Anson had a criminal record and was documented in their files. We said that the → (page 46)
KV 2/458-1, page 46
bogus Hugh Anson would be interrogated by the F.S.P. before sailing on either Friday or Saturday and we would be glad if, should it be necessary, they would tell the F.S.P. that when they telephoned to the C.I.D. they would confirm that Hugh Anson had reported to them on the 27th January (1943) having just been released from prison and that he had said he was going to sea. Superintendent Thomas and Chief Inspector Tilley stated that Anson should say that he had reported to the convict Supervision office to Sub. Culshaw, while they would make arrangements that this man would confirm that Hug Anson was known to them.
Zigzag is now on board the ship and we are waiting any further developments.
Copy to Mr. Stopford B.1.L. (M.I.5) Sgd. R.T. Reed
AOB: I consider this historical moment - a convenient closure of Chapter 3
KV 2/458-1, page 53 (minute 234c)
Note for file.
At a discussion between Major Robertson (TAR), Mr. Marriott and myself on 26.2.43 it was agreed that as Marriott would be passing through Lisbon on his way to to India he should call and see Mr. Jarvis and give him an outline of the Zigzag (Chapman) case, so that when Zigzag deserts his ship at Lisbon Mr. Jarvis will understand the circumstances. This will avoid the necessity for a long and detailed cable being sent to Jarvis by Major Foley.
B.1.a. 28.2.43 Sgd. on behalf of R.T. Reed
AOB: Not introduced yet in the file series, but it is the consequence of the notional blowing-up of some buildings at the premises of the De Havilland factory at Hatfield.
KV 2/458-1, page 56 (minute 229c)
c/o G.P.O Shepperton
25th February 1943
I should be most grateful if you could send me copies of the photographs from 2000 feet (ca. 600 m). These are the ones which interest us most and would help us on any future occasion.
Sgd, not readable
Major T.A. Robertson (TAR)
Box 500 (M.I.5)
Parliament Street B.O.
To be continued in due course
By Arthur O. Bauer